Main
Datasets
 Macaca mulatta         
 Macaca fascicularis         
 
sample data
   primate brain nissl   
Terminology
 
Antibodies
 
3D Brain Objects
sample data
   3D monkey brain   
 
Brain Connectivity
 
Genes
· Genes List
 
Downloads
 
Image Series
 
Auto-Segmented
 
Publications
sample publication
   NeuroImage Virtual Microscopy Brain Maps Publication   
Top Searches
Thalamus
Hippocampus
Septal Nucleus
Caudate Nucleus
Cerebellum
Amygdala
 
Miscellany
Timeline
Saving High Resolution Images
Keywords
Screenshots
Site Stats
Contributing
Links
 

Infundibulum


The rudiment of the hypothalamic infundibulum and neurohypophysis formed at CS 15, as a thickening of the posterior wall of the diencephalon.  

During surgery it was found a large abdominal-pelvic mass diffusely invading uterine body, and round and infundibulum-pelvic ligaments.  

Crude extracts from the sponges Myrmekioderma gyroderma, Myrmekioderma rea, Biemna cribaria, Cinachyrella kuekenthali, Iotrochota imminuta, Oceanapia peltata, Polymastia tenax, Desmapsamma anchorata, Spirastrella coccinea, Cribrochalina infundibulum and Oceanapia bartschi did not show any antimicrobial activity whatsoever.  

Dlk1 protein first appeared in Rathke's pouch and the infundibulum at E11.5; as development proceeded, expression became restricted to the pars distalis and pars tuberalis (PT).  

The infundibulum was thickened in 11 (84.6%) patients, thread-like in 1 (7.7%), and normal in 1 (7.7%).  

Remarkably, cytokeratin 19-expressing cells were never detected in the hair follicle infundibulum.  

Immunohistochemistry showed T lymphocyte infiltration into the infundibulum and isthmus.  

The paranasal sinuses, the ethmoid infundibulum, and the frontal recess were evaluated for mucosal thickening.  

Of the patients, 7 had complete or partial staghorn, 1 was a shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) failure, and 1 had a stone located in a lower calyx with a narrowed infundibulum; 7 from the 9 patients turned out to have some kind of a metabolic disorder--cystinuria in 6 patients and hyperoxaluria in one patient.  

intermedium was typical of sessile peritrichs, consisting of an outer haplokinety and an inner polykinety 1 (PK1) that made approximately turns around the peristomial disk before entering the infundibulum. Within the infundibulum, PK 1 was accompanied by polykinetid 2 (PK2) and polykinetid 3 (PK3), each consisting of three kinetosomal rows: PK2 of Z.  

infundibulum (2%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (2%), Echinoparyhium recurvatum (1%), Echinostoma revolutum (1%), Heterakis gallinarum (29%), Ascaridia galli (16%), Capillaria caudinflata (12%), Capillaria retusa (6%), Capillaria bursata (4%), Capillaria annulata (1%) and Syngamus trachea (2%)..  

Cardiac index was measured by a thermodilution technique during spontaneous rhythm (SR) and during atrio-synchronized RV pacing at four different sites (infundibulum, apex, septal, and lateral walls).  

In one biopsy specimen, abnormal keratinocytes bridging the follicular infundibulum were seen.  

Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to observe the changes in mRNA expression of these cytokines in the infundibulum, uterus, UVJ and vagina after insemination.  

Most polyps originate from contact areas of the uncinate process, the middle turbinate or the ethmoid infundibulum.  

The normal infundibulum and neurohypophysis consist entirely of neuronal processes, the neuronal cell bodies of which lie within the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and supportive glial cells or pituicytes.  

The hyponychium could be compared with the follicular infundibulum as a zone bordering the surrounding epidermis, and the term nail infundibulum could be considered to be synonymous for hyponychium and ODB..  

Organ involvement was found in the infundibulum of the pituitary gland, associated with diabetes insipidus centralis, bone marrow infiltration, and several micronodules of the thoracic and lumbar spine and lungs.  

In its most severe form, the infundibulum of the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery can be atretic with the anomaly commonly referred to as pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect.  

Specimens were collected in reproductive and nonreproductive condition throughout the year and five ultrastructurally unique regions were recognized: the anterior infundibulum, posterior infundibulum, glandular uterus, nonglandular uterus, and vagina. Except for the anterior infundibulum and vagina, which exhibit no seasonal variation in ultrastructure, the oviduct becomes highly secretory at the start of vitellogenesis. This includes the entire luminal border of the uterus, the tubular glands of the glandular uterus, and the luminal border and sperm storage tubules of the posterior infundibulum.  

Associated conotruncal heart defects included malrotation of the aorta, defects in the subpulmonic infundibulum associated with a small right ventricle, and increased OFT mesenchyme with failure of semilunar valve formation.  

In 1 patient, we could not achieve access to the system due to the stricture of the infundibulum.  

The outer layer is produced in the infundibulum, the first section of the oviduct.  

The patient underwent resection of a lipoma which weighed 1100 g and had a pedicle 6 cm in diameter, connected to the epicardial surface of right ventricle infundibulum..  

The pituitary gland and the infundibulum guard the region when an endonasal route is undertaken. Superior transposition of the pituitary gland and infundibulum is described as a functional means to access this complex region through a fully endoscopic, completely transnasal route.  

Three cases with either lateral and posterior walls of frontal recess and frontal infundibulum attachment, or medial and posterior walls of frontal recess and frontal infundibulum attachment underwent a Draf IIB procedure. Two cases with posterior wall of frontal recess and frontal infundibulum attachment, or medial, lateral, and posterior walls of frontal recess and frontal infundibulum attachment underwent a Draf III procedure.  

The AvbetaD-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8, -9, -10, -11, and -12 were identified in each oviductal segment from infundibulum to vagina.  

We have shown that a sheet-flow-type arrangement of blood capillaries surrounds the infundibulum; this represents an unexpected functional convergence with the arrangement of blood capillaries surrounding the mammalian alveoli.  

Anatomic characteristics: Twelve had fibrous ring, 2 asymmetric septal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 2 posterior displacement of the infundibular septum, 1 ectopic mitral tissue, 1 anomalous insertion of mitral valve chordae tendineae in the ventricular septum, 3 malposition of the mitral valve and papillary muscles, and 1 subaortic infundibulum.  

Moreover, in its application for craniopharyngiomas, an understanding of tumor growth and extension with respect to the optic chiasm and infundibulum is critical to safely approach the lesion via an endonasal route..  

Quantitative immunohistochemistry detected three melanocyte-lineage markers and c-Kit in four focus areas: the epidermis, infundibulum, hair bulb (where pigment is formed) and mid-follicle outer root sheath (ORS).  

The Mirizzi syndrome is an uncommon condition of obstructive jaundice secondary to a common hepatic duct obstruction caused by a gallstone impacted in the gallbladder's infundibulum.  

Three cases with either lateral and posterior walls of frontal recess and frontal infundibulum attachment or medial and posterior walls of frontal recess and frontal infundibulum attachment underwent Draf II B procedure. Two cases with either posterior wall of frontal recess and frontal infundibulum attachment or medial, lateral and posterior walls of frontal recess and frontal infundibulum attachment underwent Draf III procedure.  

In addition to those described as typical of this entity, such as dilation of the infundibulum and hyperkeratosis and spongiosis of the infundibular epithelium, many other histological changes can be observed.  

RESULTS: Immediately following the first treatment, the mechanical extrusion of comedo contents from the infundibulum was observed histologically.  

The prevalences of different species were as follows: Ascaridia galli female 28%, male 43%; Capillaria obsignata 0.5%; Heterakis gallinarum 33%; Amoebotaenia cuneata 4.3%; Choanotaenia infundibulum female 23%, male 13%; Davainea proglottina 1.4%; Hymenolepsis cantaniana 11%; Hymenolepsis carioca female 35%, male 24%; Raillietina cesticillius female 5%, male 11%; Raillietina echinobothrida 16%; and Raillietina tetragona 18%. infundibulum and H.  

CONTEXT: Fraleys syndrome is characterized by vascular compression on the superior infundibulum with secondary dilatation of the upper pole calyx, mostly located on the right side.  

The third one had a 4 cm stone in the infundibulum of the upper calyx of the left pelvic ectopic kidney.  

The pituitary gland and infundibulum can be involved in a variety of medical conditions, including infiltrative diseases, fungal infections, tuberculosis, primary and metastatic tumors. Pituitary metastases more commonly affect the posterior lobe and the infundibulum than the anterior lobe.  

We have identified a distinct population of murine hair follicle keratinocytes residing in the upper isthmus (UI) between the infundibulum and bulge regions that are distinguished by low alpha6 integrin levels and are negative for CD34 and Sca-1.  

The granular cells in the infundibulum contributed to secretion during egg formation, whereas ciliated cells showed little evidence of secretion. Ultrastructural changes were recorded in the granular and glandular cells of the distal infundibulum.  

Cranial CT in the first patient showed postgadolinium enhancement of the ependyma and the infundibulum, while in the second there was diffuse enhancement of the leptomeninges.  

Cystic dilatations in the infundibulum of hair follicles with distorted and smaller sebaceous glands were seen in the statin-treated control, diabetic, and statin-treated diabetic groups.  

Careful examination of archival material showed that although most small p53 patches arise interfollicularly, some may actually arise high up in a follicle, in the infundibulum..  

Failure to recognize the impact that MSH has on the position of the ethmoid infundibulum relative to the medial orbital wall could lead to inadvertent damage to the wall during surgery. We then correlated the relationship of the ethmoid infundibulum to the medial orbital wall as determined by computed tomography in patients with and without MSH. We found that in most cases of MSH, the ethmoid infundibulum was displaced lateral to the medial wall of the orbit; the correlation between MSH status and displacement was statistically significant (p < 0.05).  

Only the left oviduct is developed as a long tube with a length of 122 +/- 23.1 cm, and is subdivided into infundibulum (15.2 +/- 4.0 cm), magnum (63.3 +/- 9.4 cm), isthmus (5.6 +/- 3.1 cm), uterus (16.0 +/- 4.2 cm) and vagina (11.5 +/- 1.4 cm). The infundibulum part presents a cranial opening with thin and long fimbriae with few tubular glands in caudal tubular portion.  

The tickness of the ventricular septum was 1 to 3 times greater than normal and the anterior wall of the infundibulum from 1 to 4 times greater than normal; the AV-A and A-PV distances were reduced in a half of the normal length.  

The biological 'design' of the sucker system is understood to be divided anatomically into three functional groups: the infundibulum that produces a surface seal that conforms to arbitrary surface geometry; the acetabulum that generates negative pressures for adhesion; and the extrinsic muscles that allow adhered surfaces to be rotated relative to the arm.  

At CS 15 the primordia of hypothalamic infundibulum and of neurohypophysis are formed as a thickening of diencephalic posterior wall.  

After identification of the infundibulum, the cystic duct and artery were closed by application of hemostasis clips.  

Real-time PCR analysis revealed that GPR39 mRNA is expressed at high levels in the digestive tissues such as stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon and rectum and at moderate levels in the oviduct including infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, and uterus.  

Granular cell tumours (GCT) and pituicytomas are rare tumours seen in the sellar suprasellar region which are believed to arise from either the infundibulum or the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.  

Immunofluorescent and immunoelectron-microscopic observations revealed that chalazae and chalaziferous layers overlaid to approximately 40 microm upon the vitelline membrane of the ovum were composed of the same materials as those produced by both types of secretory cells in the luminal and glandular epithelia at the infundibulum. We propose that the mechanism of chalaza formation is as follows: (1) chalazae first appear as fine filaments at the presumptive sharp and blunt ends of the ovum at the infundibulum; (2) these filaments are twisted into a lead fiber while the ovum is rotating and descending in the magnum; (3) at the posterior end of the magnum, the lead fiber is anchored to the thick egg white and lifted outward with the chalaziferous sublayers when the inner egg white is liquefied by absorbing water; (4) the lead fiber and chalaziferous sublayers are twisted further into the chalaza in the uterus..  

Upon copulation in female Agkistrodon piscivorus, sperm migrate up the oviduct to sperm storage tubules (SSTs) in the posterior infundibulum. The epithelium of the SSTs is composed of ciliated and secretory cells and differs ultrastructurally from that of the epithelium lining the lumen of the posterior infundibulum.  

With 3864 +/- 605 microm and 580 +/- 84 microm in THF compared to 646 +/- 140 microm and 225 +/- 34 microm in VHF, the total length and the length of the infundibulum differed significantly as determined by paired t-test (P < 0.0001).  

DISCUSSION: Based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings, we proposed the hypothesis of benign epithelial tumour of follicular type, beginning in the pilar infundibulum..  

Majocchi's granuloma is a condition with chronic erythematous and indurated plaques that is a result of the rupture of a dermatophyte-infected infundibulum as a result of trauma.  

INTERVENTION: A left transylvian approach exposed an infundibulum of the left posterior communicating artery in contact with and creating an indentation on the third cranial nerve. CONCLUSION: Third nerve palsy may in some cases result from direct vascular compression by the posterior communicating artery, particularly if associated with a broad infundibulum..  

On histologic evaluation, the epidermis showed changes reminiscent of tumor of the follicular infundibulum as well as basaloid proliferations resembling superficial trichoblastoma.  

The Monodelphis oviduct can be divided into four anatomical segments: preampulla (comprising fimbriae and infundibulum), ampulla, isthmus with crypts and uterotubal junction.  

Thus, prevention and treatment of mechanical asynchrony and malignant arrhythmia should focus on the RV infundibulum.  

MRI revealed infundibulum involvement in 5 patients, pituitary stalk thickness abnormality in 5, and involvement of the pituitary gland in 2, associated with other parenchymal brain or spinal cord lesions in 6 patients.  

Craniopharyngiomas can be classified depending on their locations from the sella, the diaphragma sellae, and upon their origins from the pituitary stalk or the infundibulum.  

METHODS: The operative procedure performed since 2002 consists of the incision of the visceral peritoneum from the infundibulum away from Calot's triangle along the gallbladder bed up to the fundus. Then it continues from the fundus up to the infundibulum.  

Histopathologically, the incompletely differentiated remnant hair shaft was packed in the follicular infundibulum.  

Three new forms of instrumentation were developed: (1) a longer access port (50 cm) which provided easier deployment of instruments and suitable reach, (2) a more robust cauterizer with a longer, more rigid, pneumatically deployed tip with better reach and sufficient torque to allow blunt dissection, and (3) a more versatile tissue retractor with bidirectional dual flexible graspers which provided excellent cephalad fundus retraction and inferiolateral infundibulum retraction.  

infundibulum and P.  

In both these rare cases, the left main coronary artery traversed between the aortic root and the freestanding subpulmonary infundibulum and then divided into its regular branches.  

Histopathologically both revealed greatly dilated infundibulum lined by acanthotic epidermis and atrophic subinfundibular hair structures thus confirming diagnosis of dilated pore of Winer..  

This was performed through a left thoracotomy with puncture of the pulmonary infundibulum using the same systems of introduction and valved stent. This technique could be adapted for correction of pulmonary regurgitation after correction of Tetralogy of Fallot associated with reduction of the pulmonary infundibulum..  

At operation an anomalously thickened moderator band obstructing the apical infundibulum was found.  

Also, as percentages of organ weight or length, infundibulum length and isthmus weight were increased, whereas duodenum length was decreased by dietary supplementation with PHY and 25-D3.  

The critical view technique was performed with anterolateral infundibular retraction, and the infundibulum and body were dissected along the peritoneal reflection on both sides of the gallbladder. The cystic duct and infundibulum were funnel shaped and spiraled from lateral to posteromedial rotation.  

INTRODUCTION: Presented herein is a case in which an aberrant right hepatic artery (RHA) passes anterior to the infundibulum and fundus of the gallbladder and courses to an unusually anterior hepatic entry. Laparoscopic dissection revealed an aberrant right hepatic artery (RHA) anterior to the infundibulum and fundus of the gallbladder.  

METHODS: A 52-year-old male with left upper pole renal stones associated with a narrow upper pole infundibulum underwent upper pole renal access prior to percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL).  

CONCLUSIONS: In a model of a moderately hydronephrotic kidney with long infundibulum and limited ability to perform passive secondary deflection, FUs with exaggerated active deflection outmanoeuvred the URF-P3.  

The diencephalon and infundibulum displayed parallel immunolabelling of vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament protein (NF), while the surrounding mesenchyme showed only vimentin labelling.  

In this study, the presence of cells of the oviductal epithelium in the serosa of the infundibulum and the ampulla, as well as indications of a high functional activity of the mesothelial cells in the areas studied were two aspects that differed from the findings of previous works.  

We present a case of progressive unilateral MSH, which has an open ethmoid infundibulum and also presence of an open accessory ostium on the same side.  

The so-called tendon of the infundibulum has previously been described as part of this skeleton, but its structure and incidence remain ill defined. In our opinion, therefore, accounts in the literature describing the "tendon of the infundibulum" as a tendinous structure connecting the aortic and pulmonary roots do not accurately represent this anatomical structure..  

Investigations revealed the presence of thickened pericardium and a thickened calcific constrictive band around the atrioventricular groove posteriorly and over the infundibulum anteriorly.  

Right ventriculogram showed a tripartite right ventricle, vasiform infundibulum, and membranous pulmonary valve atresia without ventriculocoronary connections.  

KiSS-1 mRNA is readily detectable in oviduct samples from all phases of the estrous cycle, whereas kisspeptin-IR is detected in rat oviduct with a regionalized pattern of distribution, viz., strong expression in the isthmus, faint signals in the proximal ampulla, and a lack of immunostaining in the fimbriated infundibulum and interstitial portion.  

The lower infundibulopelvic angle (LIPA) was measured as the angle between the vertical pelvis axis and the vertical axis of lower infundibulum (Sampaio's method). However, there was a significant difference between mean lower pole infundibulum length (P = 0.001), infundibulum width (P = 0.001) and LIPA (P = 0.0001) between stone-free patients and patients with residual fragments. Multivariate logistic regression analysis accepting stone-free as the favourable result also confirmed that LIPA, lower pole infundibulum length and width were factors that significantly affected the outcome.  

Diffuse swelling of the infundibulum as well as lack of T1-hyperintense signal in the posterior lobe was noted by pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.  

Of these species, Gongylonema sp., Procyrnea pileata, and Choanotaenia infundibulum are reported from scaled quail for the first time. infundibulum, Fuhrmannetta sp., and Rhabdometra odiosa was 98, 2, 56, 4, 60, 2, 25, and 35%, respectively.  

The results were correlated with the following anatomic parameters of the collecting system as determined from the pretreatment intravenous urography: (1) lower infundibulum width, (2) lower infundibulum length, (3) infundibulopelvic angle, (4) volume of the collecting system. Stone-free patients compared with patients having residual fragments had no significant differences in infundibulum width, infundibulum length, infundibulopelvic angle, or collecting system volume.  

METHODS: The anterior infundibulum of maxillary P2, or the occlusal surface at the site of the infundibulum, in 117 horses and ponies, 77 with and 40 without caries in this tooth, was sampled for bacteriological analyses between 1990 and 2004. devriesei can colonise the infundibulum of P2 of the horse upper jaw, which can be fatal for the dental tissue.  

Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used.  

The pituitary gland and infundibulum can also be involved in Wegener's granulomatosis.  

The sizes of follicular infundibulum were measured quantitatively, with reserved sebum by Sebutape.  

Histopathology of both groups at day one showed necrosis of the follicular infundibulum and the inner layer of the perifollicular epithelium.  

In HS epidermis we found the strongest IR for all AChR around the follicular infundibulum while in the sinus epithelia it was only weak.  

The outflow tract myocardium, subsequently, shortens as a result of ventricularization, contributing to the trabeculated free wall, as well as the infundibulum, of the right ventricle.  

The infundibulum and magnum of the oviduct were examined in hens in full lay which were infected with two Australian strains of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The ultramicroscopic changes in the infundibulum and magnum were compared with control hens which had eggs at different positions in the oviduct. Between 16 and 24 days p.i., there was no cilia loss and lymphoid nodules were observed in the muscularis layer of the infundibulum and magnum of some hens from both infected groups. The magnum was more affected than the infundibulum. Cellular changes were more severe in the infundibulum and magnum of T-infected hens as compared to N1/88-infected hens. Loss of cilia in both the infundibulum and magnum pose a potential threat of secondary bacterial infection and also may affect fertility in breeder hens..  

The morphology of the outlet septum, the ventriculo-infundibular fold, the infundibulum and the septomarginal trabeculation has been well described.  

SS monkeys exhibited higher expression of 5HT2A mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), higher expression of 5HT2C and GAD67 in the infundibulum, as well as higher expression of GAD67 in the posterior hypothalamus (PH), compared with HSR monkeys.  

OBJECTIVE: The pathologic spectrum of pituitary infundibulum disease is diverse. CONCLUSION: The spectrum of pathology involving the pituitary infundibulum is broad yet distinct from other pathology in the sella and parasellar region.  

Microscopically, the three components of implanted xenografts (the pulmonary artery, valve, and infundibulum) were shown to be gradually replaced with host cells in time, while maintaining structural integrity.  

BACKGROUND: Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by a lymphomononuclear infiltrate surrounding the isthmus and infundibulum of the hair follicle of the scalp, that evolves into atrophic/scarring alopecia.  

MRI of the sella showed pituitary enlargement with symmetrical suprasellar expansion, compression of the chiasma, thickened infundibulum, and involvement of both bilateral cavernous sinuses and clivus.  

METHODS: A study population of 62 patients with surgically repaired TF underwent gated-SPECT ERNA to determine ejection fraction of the right and left ventricle and dimensions of the right ventricle and pulmonary infundibulum.  

The native aortic root was excised from the right ventricle infundibulum and inserted into the left ventricular outflow, enlarging the outflow tract by resecting the outlet septum and an appropriate-size ventricular septal defect patch.  

Sagittal images were recorded only when the mesencephalic aqueduct and infundibulum were distinctly visible in the same image.  

The SB was found both in between the inner and outer layers of vitelline membranes around eggs and in the oviductal infundibulum. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that the substance was produced in secretory cells in the luminal epithelium of the oviductal infundibulum and was provided to the egg on and in its vitelline membrane.  

Specific activities of seven acid glycosidases: beta-hexosaminidase, alpha- and beta-galactosidase, alpha- and beta-mannosidase, alpha-glucosidase and alpha-fucosidase were determined in various parts of the domestic hen oviduct (infundibulum, isthmus, shell gland and vagina).  

We report a patient with Williams' syndrome who also has isolated obstruction of the right ventricular infundibulum, an association that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported..  

Azelaic acid has been shown to normalize keratinization in the follicular infundibulum, exert an antibacterial effect against Propionibacterium acnes and inhibit melanogenesis and so has been used for topical treatment of acne and melasma.  

We report a case of severe urinary extravasation after renal contusion and its successful management by endoscopic creation of a neoinfundibulum. When the stenotic infundibulum cannot be traversed with a guide wire, creation of a new infundibulum will offer a secure alternative for accessing the collecting system..  

Contrast with GdDTPA was used to visualize the pituitary gland and associated structures (stalk, infundibulum).  

In addition, this is sometimes accompanied by differentiation toward the follicular infundibulum and outer root sheath.  

CK expression showed the presence of CK 1, 10, 14 and 17, suggesting that TLC differentiates toward follicular infundibulum.  

A variety of congenital cardiac anomalies with severe right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction or RVOT interruption require surgical reconstruction from the infundibulum up to the pulmonary artery bifurcation or even into the branches of the pulmonary arteries.  

In addition we have shown that the remaining 10% did not penetrate the viable tissue, but was localized in the furrows and in the opened infundibulum.  

Using the same ChAT antibody for Western blot analyses, we detected immunoreactive bands of MW 69,000 and 46,000 mainly in ampulla, while MW 58,000 and 30,000 forms were present mainly in infundibulum and isthmus.  

Decreased lengths of the left oviduct and its infundibulum were seen after embryonic treatment with o,p'-DDT or EE2.  

Receptors were detected by immunohistochemistry in the epithelial cells, connective tissue and muscular layer of oviductal infundibulum, ampulla, ampullary/isthmic transition and isthmus. ERalpha in the connective tissue was more abundant at the infundibulum and ampulla, regardless of the phase of the estrous cycle and of E(2) and P(4) circulating concentrations.  

Immediately after slaughter, oviductal samples of three different segments (isthmus, ampulla and infundibulum) were fixed, embedded in plastic resin and stained with toluidine blue or cryofixed and stored in a freezer at -70 degrees C until analysed by immunohistochemistry (pre-ovulatory inseminated sows) with an avidin-biotin peroxidase method. The numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes of all sows as well as CD2- and CD3-positive cells of the pre-ovulatory inseminated sows were higher in the infundibulum than in the other segments (p < or = 0.001). In the subepithelial connective tissue of the pre-ovulatory inseminated sows, significantly higher numbers of lymphocytes (p < or = 0.001) and plasma cells (p < or = 0.001) were found in infundibulum than in isthmus. Neutrophils were found mainly in infundibulum, the number approximately 40 h after pre-ovulatory insemination was significantly higher (p < or = 0.05) than in the other groups and segments. In the subepithelial connective tissue of post-ovulatory inseminated sows, the numbers of lymphocytes was higher (p < or = 0.001) at day 19 than up to 50 h after insemination and lower (p < or = 0.001) in isthmus than in ampulla and infundibulum. Neutrophils were found in infundibulum in almost all groups and the number was significantly higher (p < or = 0.05) in the infundibulum up to 50 h after insemination than in other segments.  

The presence of protein gene product 9.5, neurofilament protein and neuron specific enolase nerve fibres were demonstrated in the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell gland and vagina.  

At the older developmental stages of the 18th to 22nd gestational week loose aggregates of haematopoietic cells within the leptomeningeal spaces adjacent to the hypophyseal infundibulum were detected in 2 out of 7 cases analyzed.  

The pathological process developing in the paracellar area in the presence of primary empty sella syndrome inevitably involves the optic chiasm and optic nerves closely anatomically connected with hypothalamic nuclei and pituitary infundibulum.  

The ETVC of the IIIrd ventricle showed: impossibility of recognizing any mammillary bodies (4/10); presence of septations (5/10); presence of atypical veins in the floor (6/10); translucent floor (5/10); floor umbilications (5/10); absence of infundibulum (4/10); arachnoid adherences (7/10); and visual contact of basilar artery (4/10).  

Using qualitative autoradiography the radioactive molecules were detected in the lumen of the hair follicles until the infundibulum, around the superficial parts of the hair follicles and into a depth of the dermis of 200 to 500 microm.  

While pAkt was present within the bulge region of hair follicles, pmTOR was present in cells in the ORS of the bulge region as well as the upper infundibulum of hair follicles in dorsal skin treated with acetone.  

The "anatomic scenario" of this condition should be suspected for patients presenting with conditions such as empyema or mucocoele when there is a likelihood of stone impaction in the infundibulum of the gallbladder.  

CK expression profile of DC was similar to follicular infundibulum and sebaceous gland. These results suggested that DC differentiates towards follicular infundibulum and mature sebaceous gland..  

BACKGROUND: Hydrocalix is an uncommon condition that typically is treated with percutaneous dilation of the stenotic infundibulum. Of the remaining 11, the original infundibulum was dilated in all but one, in whom neoinfundibulotomy was performed with a laser.  

CONCLUSION: Diffuse destruction of the complete pituitary gland including the infundibulum has to be considered in lymphocytic and granulomatous hypophysitis, whereas in xanthomatous, a circumscribed anterior pituitary lesion leading to compression of the pituitary gland without alteration of the pituitary stalk and optic chiasm can be assumed..  

In combination with our own previous findings, which indicated an association between LOX stimulation and increased percentage of proinflammatory lipids in acne as well as a correlation between increased cytokine levels in the infundibulum, pilosebaceous duct hyperkeratinization, and augmented sebogenesis, the present data further support the involvement of lipid peroxides, in particular squalene peroxides, in establishing an inflammatory process in acne..  

Bacterial genera isolated are coagulase-negative staphylococci and diphtheroid rods on the skin surface and propionibacteria in the infundibulum of the sebaceous glands.  

An impacted gallstone was noted in the infundibulum; this was not visible on T2-weighted images, but was hyperintense on T1-weighted gradient-echo images.  

The highest amounts of 5-HIAA were found in the choroid plexus, third and right ventricles, pituitary recess, and aqueduct, and the lowest in pineal recess, subarachnoid space, infundibulum, and interpeduncolar cistern.  

Stained fibers occurred in the median eminence and infundibulum.  

In the present investigation, the storage reservoir capacity of the stratum corneum and the hair follicle infundibulum and canal are compared.  

Follicular changes progressed from bulbar clumping, clumping in the isthmus/infundibulum and finally to dysplastic hair shafts.  

Specimens from left cerebral cortex were cut coronally at the infundibulum and observed by light and electron microscopy.  

Common microscopic findings for both FFA and LPP included an inflammatory lymphocytic infiltrate involving the isthmus and infundibulum of the hair follicles, the presence of apoptotic cells in the external root sheath, and a concentric fibrosis surrounding the hair follicles that resulted in their destruction with subsequent scarring alopecia.  

Tissue levels of endogenous acetylcholine (D0ACh), endogenous choline (D0Ch), D4Ch, and ACh synthesized from D4Ch (D4ACh) were measured by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry in hippocampus, infundibulum, mesencephalon, neocortex, piriform cortex, and striatum.  

P3pro-Cre-mediated loss of Cx43 in the neural tube was characterized by a late phase of cellular delamination from the dorsal and lateral neural tube, a markedly increased abundance of neuroepithelium-derived cells outside of the neural tube and an excess of such cells infiltrating the heart and infundibulum.  

Six patterns of inflammatory sinus disease were designated: maxillary infundibulum, nasofrontal duct, OMU, sphenoethmoidal recess, polyposis and sporadic.  

Its haplokinety (H) and polykinety (Po) complete one and one-half circuits on the peristome before entering the infundibulum. Its H and Po complete approximately one circuit around the peristome before entering the infundibulum.  

Patients in Group B, the intermediate group, are those with borderline RV size, usually with attenuated trabecular component but well developed infundibulum.  

We describe a myxoma arising from the infundibulum of the right ventricle causing significant outflow tract obstruction in an otherwise normal newborn.  

Panfolliculoma is a rare follicular neoplasm with differentiation toward both upper (infundibulum and isthmus) and lower (stem, hair matrix, and bulb) segments of a hair follicle.  

Increased stone diameter (P=0.0001) and burden (P=0.04) were found as the most significant factors that adversely affect the stone-free rate for pelvis renalis calculi, whereas an acutely oriented infundibulum and/or a long lower infundibulum (P=0.005) were unfavourable factors for clearance of lower caliceal stones. Increased stone burden, multiple stones, staghorn calculi, narrow lower infundibulopelvic angle and long lower infundibulum are factors that adversely affect the clearance rate..  

We examined a new parameter: Renal longitudinal axis-infundibulum angle (RIA) for renal stone formation.  

Magnetic resonance images showed incoherent pituitary stalk and re-review of the first computed tomography scans of the day of the accident confirmed hemorrhage in the infundibulum.  

Hair follicle consists of 3 parts : the lower portion, from the base of the follicle including hair bulb to the insertion of the arrector pili muscle or buldge ; the isthmus, from the insertion of the arrector pili to the entrance of the sebaceous duct, and the infundibulum, from the entrance of the sebaceous duct to the follicular orifice.  

Disseminated disease often involves the central nervous system, but only six isolated lesions in the infundibulum have been reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed a 1-cm homogeneously enhancing mass in the region of the infundibulum. The lesion, which was adherent to the infundibulum, was partially resected. CONCLUSIONS: Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the infundibulum is rare.  

Cell fate analysis using the Tbx1 enhancer suggests that SHF-derived Tbx1-expressing cells contribute extensively to the right ventricular myocardium as well as the OFT during early development and ultimately give rise to the right ventricular infundibulum, pulmonary trunk, and pulmonary valves.  

During the period between two consecutive ovipositions, the developing egg remained for 9h in the proximal part (infundibulum, magnum or isthmus) and for 39h in the distal part of the oviduct (uterus).  

The oviductal infundibulum is an asymmetric funnel-shaped structure surrounding the ostium, in which a wide and a narrow side can be distinguished. Cyclical changes were observed in the infundibulum and ampulla, so that prominent and numerous ciliated cells lined apical areas of the folds in the follicular phase; whereas secretary cells were predominant throughout all areas of epithelial surface in the luteal phase.  

Endocavitary investigations showed that the ventricular extrasystoles originated in the common ventricular myocardium (pulmonary infundibulum) in only 9 cases whereas the majority arose from the Parkinje system either on the anterior wall of the right ventricle or in septal region of the left ventricle. The extrasystoles arising from the Parkinje system and pulmonary infundibulum differed in their duration and polymorphism (128 +/- 18 ms vs 145 +/- 13 ms, p = 0.05; 3.3 +/- 2.7 morphologies vs 1.1 +/- 0.4, p < 0.001, respectively).  

The septal arteries establish important relations with the pulmonary infundibulum but their contribution to its vascularization is negligible.  

The follicular penetration processes are significantly influenced by the state of the follicular infundibulum; recent experimental investigations could demonstrate that it is essential to distinguish between open and closed hair follicles.  

In cases in which the anomalous LAD crossed the obstructed infundibulum, thinning or coring of the endocardium was done.  

Inlet and infundibulum right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic diameters reduced by 23+/-2% and 23+/-3%, respectively (p<0.001 for both measurements), although with a different time-course of changes.  

The most cranial part of the right ventriculum infundibulum, the pulmonary anulus, the valve and finally the main trunk of the pulmonary artery are the most important structures.  

RV morphology typical for ARVC was found discrete in one of them (bulges adipose tissue in the RV apex); the latter showed changes suggesting RV abnormality (mild segmental dilatation of infundibulum, adipose tissue in a free wall of the RV).  

However, presumably because of a lack of certain hair keratins, the hair shafts that are generated twist and coil in the hair follicle infundibulum, which becomes dilated.  

In the group of patients diagnosed with polyps pre-operatively, 97.4% had polyps originating in the anterior ethmoid complex, of which 89.7% had polyps originating in the anterior ethmoidal cells and over 60% had polyps specifically originating from each of the following sites: the uncinate or infundibulum, the posterior ethmoid sinus, the frontal recess and the face of the bulla ethmoidalis.  

Here we describe the immunocytochemical mapping of SHBG-containing neurons and nerve fibers in the human hypothalamus and infundibulum. There were SHBG-immunoreactive axons in the median eminence and the infundibulum.  

For this purpose, oviducts were collected from Landrace cycling sows and divided into three segments (isthmus, ampulla, infundibulum). Different concentrations of u-PA mRNA were detected in the three segments following the pattern isthmus>ampulla>infundibulum and this pattern was maintained during the oestrous cycle. On the contrary, the highest PAA was measured in the ampulla compared to the isthmus and the infundibulum and the highest ampullary PAA was detected during the first 2 days of the oestrous cycle.  

Metastasic spread to the pituitary gland, specifically to the area of the infundibulum is, however, a more rare presentation.  

Drainage of the frontal sinus to the middle meatus (medial to the superior attachment of the UP [ types 1-3]) was classified as group 1, and drainage of the frontal sinus to the ethmoid infundibulum (lateral to the superior attachment of the UP [ types 4-6]) was classified as group 2.  

Seven helminth species were identified: two cestodes Choanotaenia infundibulum and Lyruterina nigropunctata, and five nematodes Aonchotheca caudinflata, Baruscapillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum.  

RESULTS: HALS was performed on three patients with MS type I and 2 with mimic MS owing to an unclear or abnormal anatomy, or an unusual circumstance in which an impacted stone was squeezed out from the infundibulum or the aberrant cystic duct impossible with laparoscopic approach.  

Nuclei, which contained cells labeled for the androgen receptor (AR), were mainly identified in the olfactory bulbs, preoptic-septal region, infundibulum, amygdala, thalamus, tectum, torus semicircularis, and medulla.  

The purpose of this research was to determine whether smoke solutions caused a change in adhesion between the OCC and infundibulum of the oviduct and to determine whether a change in adhesion could account for decreased OCC pickup rate.  

Using immunohistochemistry, Ob-R-like positive reaction was observed only in the cytoplasm of secretory cells, having stronger intensity in the infundibulum and ampulla tracts than in the isthmus.  

The anomalous artery arose from the same aortic sinus that gave rise to the main stem of the left coronary artery, and reached the right atrioventricular groove by traversing the tissue plane between the aortic root and the subpulmonary infundibulum.  

Some patients with pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum, mild to moderate right ventricular hypoplasia, and a patent infundibulum remain duct dependent on the flow of blood through the arterial duct despite adequate relief of the obstruction within the right ventricular outflow tract.  

The connection between the nasopalatine infundibulum and the incisive fossa is typically closed at the time of birth.  

A biopsy specimen obtained from a skin pustule showed subcorneal eosinophilic and neutrophilic pustules in the follicular infundibulum with marked spongiosis of the follicular epithelium.  

We report a submicroscopic duplication of Xq27.1, the smallest reported to date (685.6 kb), in two siblings with variable hypopituitarism, callosal abnormalities, anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH), an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and an absent infundibulum. This duplication contains SOX3 and sequences corresponding to two transcripts of unknown function; only Sox3 is expressed in the infundibulum in mice. Next, we identified a novel seven-alanine expansion within a polyalanine tract in SOX3 in a family with panhypopituitarism in three male siblings with an absent infundibulum, severe APH, and EPP.  

CASE: This 30-year-old woman had an accessory ovarian tumor attached to the infundibulum of the right fallopian tube which was solid and gross pathologically and microscopically showed the appearances of steroid cell tumor, NOS, a benign entity. CONCLUSION: We report the first case of an accessory ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS, which attached to the infundibulum of fallopian tube..  

Ebstein's malformation, tricuspid valvar dysplasia, and the presence or absence of the infundibulum, were especially noted. A patent infundibulum was noted in 34 of 39 specimens. The presence of a patent infundibulum confirms that atresia of the pulmonary valve is an acquired process.  

The infundibulum was neither cannulated nor dilated.  

Mean infundibulum width of hypophysis and transverse diameter of posterior hypophysis were significantly broader in patients with IHH than in controls (both having p < 0.001), while mean hypophysis height and volume did not differ between groups.  

Taking into consideration the four factors that are currently incriminated in the development of acne, sebaceous hypersecretion, hyperkeratosis of the pilosebaceous infundibulum, bacterial colonisation and perifollicular inflammation, we have focused our study on a set of cells involved in the chronic inflammatory process.  

The coronary artery branched into left and right arteries, with the left artery then coursing anomalously in the tissue plane between the aortic root and the subpulmonary infundibulum.  

Reducing the tract size in pediatric cases, nonhydronephrotic systems and those with a narrow infundibulum, and secondary tracts in a multiple-tract procedure may also reduce blood loss during PCNL..  

In the infundibulum, it was observed that the cysts, in the follicular phase, reduced Ricinus communis-I (RCA-I) and Ulex europaeus-I (UEA-I) binding. The Arachis hypogaea (PNA) binding in the infundibulum, during the luteal phase, decreased in the tube having adenomyosis.  

Oviductal samples from three different parts (isthmus, ampulla and infundibulum), taken immediately after slaughter, were fixed, embedded in plastic resin and stained with toluidine blue or stored in a freezer at -70 degrees C until analysed by immunohistochemistry (prooestrus and anoestrus) with an avidin-biotin peroxidase method. During all stages, a lower degree of morphological changes (pseudostratification, mitosis and secretory granules) was found in the isthmus compared with ampulla and infundibulum. In ampulla and infundibulum, pseudostratification, mitotic activity and secretory granules of the epithelium were high at prooestrus/oestrus. Cytoplasmic protrusions of epithelial cells with some extruded nuclei were prominent in ampulla and infundibulum at all stages except for oestrus and early dioestrus. Numbers of CD2-positive cells did not differ between prooestrus and anoestrus while the numbers were significantly higher in the infundibulum than in ampulla and isthmus. Neutrophils were only occasionally found and mainly in the infundibulum. Higher numbers of plasma cells (p < or = 0.001) were found in infundibulum than in ampulla and isthmus. However, the number of neutrophils differed and were highest at prooestrus in ampulla and infundibulum. In the oviduct, the morphology differed in ampulla and infundibulum with oestrous cycle stages, which indicates an effect by ovarian steroid hormones. However, the immune cell infiltration (in the connective tissue) in the upper part, especially infundibulum, differed significantly from the one in the lower part, isthmus, indicating different immune functions within various parts of the oviduct..  

Apart from findings described previously as being typical (e.g., dilation, hyperkeratosis, and spongiosis of infundibula), there were vacuolar alteration at the dermo-epithelial junction of infundibula, dyskeratotic cells scattered in infundibula, and parakeratosis in the manner of cornoid lamellation within an orthokeratotic plug filling a dilated infundibulum.  

RESULTS: Nine abnormalities were identified including distal ureteral strictures (n = 4), vascular compression of the mid left ureter (n = 1), scarring of the mid right pole infundibulum (n = 1), bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter (n = 1), urinary reservoir calculus (n = 1), and tumor recurrence invading the afferent limb of the neobladder (n = 1).  

In a 13 year-old boy exhibiting pulmonary hydatosis (first clinical signs 3 years earlier) echocardiography revealed a multi-compartmented cystic image of the anterior wall of the left atrium, with another similar image in the anterior section of the pulmonary infundibulum.  

Half of the genital tract was divided into nine segments (cervix, corpus uteri, caudal, middle and cranial uterine horn (UTH), utero-tubal junction (UTJ), isthmus, ampulla and infundibulum), which were processed for histology and SEM.  

The objective of the study reported here was to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to discover and describe the details of three-dimensional profiles and the natural (not surgically disturbed) topography/location of the infundibulum in the mouse. It will help new investigators to more quickly identify the infundibulum for successful transfer of microinjected eggs through a small opening into the oviduct/ampulla of pseudopregnant female mice for producing transgenic mice. Results of the study also illustrate the geographic orientation and natural topographic features of the ovary, infundibulum, ampulla, oviduct, and uterus. The presence of cilia on the surface of the crown foldings in the longitudinal section of the infundibular head stained with 1% toluidine blue provided direct evidence that evagination of the internal cilia of the infundibulum/oviduct results in formation of the infundibular crown. The new observation of the narrowing region of the infundibular head after surgical removal of the crown also suggests that formation of the infundibular crown may have resulted from the "evagination process" of internal cilia of the infundibulum/oviduct surface.  

The pilosebaceous unit of the follicle is divided into three compartments: the infundibulum (superficial part, outlined by the sebaceous duct), the isthmus (between the sebaceous duct and arrector pili protuberance), and the inferior segment (stem and hair bulb).  

In the second study, the reproductive tracts of 11 hens and 17 toms were aseptically excised, and the segments (female: vagina, shell gland, isthmus, magnum, and infundibulum; male: ductus deferens and testes) were swabbed with a dry cotton sterile swab. Of the 11 hens sampled, Campylobacter was isolated from the vagina (10/11), the shell gland (7/11), the isthmus (8/11), the magnum (6/11), and the infundibulum (4/11).  

The estimation of PRL release in a test of stimulation with metoclopramide can be a sensitive (though not specific) test of dopaminergic activity in tuberous--infundibulum pathway and may be used to control the treatment..  

The authors present a case in which a posterior communicating artery (PCoA) infundibulum progressed into an aneurysm in a patient with Alagille syndrome (arteriohepatic dysplasia). The 3-mm PCoA infundibulum had been noted on angiography studies obtained 5 years earlier, prior to clip occlusion of a basilar tip aneurysm. This case illustrates the small but growing number of examples of infundibulum progression.  

Complex inferior calyceal calculi were defined as multiple calculi in two or more inferior calyces of the lower polar group, with each calyx draining through a separate infundibulum and at an acute angle to each other.  


-
[ View All ]