Although FimH, the adhesin portion of type 1 fimbria, plays an important role in the pathogenicity of some gram-negative bacteria, its ability to stimulate the innate immune system via TLR signaling remains unclear. Our data suggest that TLR4 is a functional receptor for the adhesin portion of bacterial type 1 fimbria..  

The study was to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of transplanted bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected never growth factor (NGF) gene and GFP gene (as a reporter gene), in treating the rat with fimbria-fornix lesion. After transduction of NGF gene via recombinant retroviral vectors into the rat BMSCs, BMSCs were therefore transformed into the GFP-NGF positive BMSCs, nearly 100% of BMSCs expressed NGF, and then transplanted into basal forebrain of rat with fimbria-fornix lesion.  

In this article, we discuss the emergence of the fallopian tube fimbria as a field of origin for high-grade serous carcinomas and present a binary model of ovarian cancer pathogenesis that takes into consideration prior epidemiologic, morphologic, and genetic data.  

fimbria-fornix (FF), the septo-hippocampal pathway, was transected to model Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by loss of cholinergic afferent fibers in hippocampus.  

Two putative adhesins, flagella and F9 fimbria, were upregulated in the cadA mutant, suggestive of their association with adherence in the absence of the Cad regulatory mechanism.  

Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC; stage 0) has been described in asymptomatic women with BRCA mutations and linked to a serous cancer precursor in the fimbria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Presence or absence of STIC was recorded in consecutive cases meeting the 2001 WHO criteria for PPSC, including 26 patients with nonuniform sampling of the fallopian tubes (group 1) and 19 patients with complete tubal examination (group 2; sectioning and extensively examining the fimbriated end, or SEE-FIM protocol). STIC was typically fimbrial and unifocal, with variable invasion of the tubal wall. CONCLUSION: The fimbria is the source of nearly one half of PPSCs, suggesting serous malignancy originates in the tubal mucosa but grows preferentially at a remote peritoneal site.  

Adherence, often mediated by fimbriae, permits bacteria to attach to host cells and establish infection, whereas flagellum-driven motility allows bacteria to disseminate to sites more advantageous for colonization. Both fimbriae and flagella have been proven important for virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). PapX, a P fimbrial gene product of UPEC strain CFT073, is a functional homolog of MrpJ of Proteus mirabilis; ectopic expression of papX in P. To define the connection between P fimbria expression and motility in UPEC, the role of papX in the regulation of motility of strain CFT073 was examined. We conclude that synthesis of P fimbriae regulates flagellum synthesis to repress motility via PapX..  

Prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies in BRCA + women have recently implicated the fimbria as a site of origin for high-grade serous carcinoma and its intraepithelial precursors. We hypothesize that C.trachomatis infection may be involved in chronic tubal inflammation and subsequent fimbrial carcinogenesis. fimbrial intraepithelial precursors can evolve into high grade serous carcinomas that spread rapidly to the ovarian surface and peritoneum; such tumors may appear to be primary ovarian neoplasia, though in reality being a secondary malignancy.  

We compared white structures of pig brain (fimbria, corpus callosum, pyramidal tracts, and occipital white matter) to gray structures (temporal, parietal and cerebellar cortices, hippocampus, and caudate) and found that sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline uptake in white structures was 25-31% of that in hippocampus. White matter choline acetyltransferase activity was 10-50% of the hippocampal value; the highest activity was found in fimbria.  

Previously, we studied the effects of EPO given to fimbria-fornix transected rats at the moment of injury.  

Elevation was most marked in the cerebellar granular layer (by 32.6%; 95% confidence interval: 9.9-58.7%), followed by the fimbria hippocampi and the molecular layer of hippocampal CA1/CA3 region.  

Because strain BEN2908 also expresses type 1 fimbriae, we measured the adhesion specifically due to IbeA by comparing the adhesive properties of a Deltafim derivative of strain BEN2908 to those of a double Deltafim DeltaibeA mutant. No differences were observed, indicating that the reduction of adhesion in BEN2908 DeltaibeA could be due to a decrease in type 1 fimbria expression. We indeed showed that the decreased adhesion of BEN2908 DeltaibeA was correlated with a decrease in type 1 fimbria expression. A reduction of type 1 fimbria expression due to a preferential orientation of the fim promoter in the off position was also seen in an ibeT mutant of strain BEN2908. We finally suggest a role for IbeA and IbeT in modulating the expression of type 1 fimbriae through an as yet unknown mechanism..  

Fallopian tubes were completely evaluated with attention to the fimbriated end (sectioning and extensively examining the fimbria [ SEE-FIM] protocol). Twenty-six of 28 (30% overall frequency) consecutively examined bilateral fallopian tube specimens contained adenofibromas (FTAs and iFTAs); all confined to the fimbria. The fimbrial endosalpinx and the ovarian cortex share the potential for similar specialized stromal expansions with the formation of biphasic tumors with endosalpingeal epithelial differentiation. Similar to reports of serous and endometrioid tumors in both the distal fallopian tube and ovary, FTAs highlight a shared epithelial-mesenchymal differentiation pathway in the fimbrial-ovarian region.  

In this study, we cloned and characterized the type 1 fimbria gene cluster of a clinical K. Although this cluster was not identical to the Escherichia coli type 1 fimbria gene cluster, an overall high degree of structural resemblance was demonstrated. pneumoniae fim gene cluster is the fimK gene, whose product contains an EAL domain, suggesting that it has a role in regulation of fimbrial expression. Like expression of type 1 fimbriae in E. coli, expression of type 1 fimbriae in K. An isogenic type 1 fimbria mutant was constructed and used to evaluate the influence of type 1 fimbriae in different infection models. Type 1 fimbriae did not influence the ability of K. Our results suggest that during colonization and infection, there is pronounced selective pressure in different host environments for selection of either the type 1 fimbriated or nonfimbriated phenotype of K.  

Wfs1-positive nerve fibers were found in the medial forebrain bundle, reticular part of the substantia nigra, globus pallidus, posterior caudate putamen, lateral lemniscus, alveus, fimbria, dorsal hippocampal commissure, subiculum, and to a lesser extent in the central sublenticular extended amygdala, compact part of substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area.  

coli have been recognized as a specific pathogenic group of organisms characterized by the presence of pathogenecity islands, horizontally-acquired genes encoding various pathogenic phenotypes, including fimbria, other adhesins, lipopolysaccharide, the polysaccharide capsule, various toxins and hemolysins, and siderophores.  

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbria-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was investigated using Northern blot analysis. The fimbria-stimulated expression of the COX-2 gene was inhibited by curcumin but not by tetrahydrocurcumin.  

The virulence of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli Dr(+) IH11128 strain is associated with the presence of Dr fimbrial structures and a DraD invasin which can act as a fimbrial capping domain at the bacterial cell surface. However, a recent study suggests that the DraD protein is surface exposed in two forms: fimbria associated and fimbria nonassociated (prone to interaction with the N-terminal extension of the DraE protein located on the fimbrial tip).  

In order to address the issue from the perspective of functional posttraumatic recovery, we studied 6 experimental groups of rats--3 groups undergoing a fimbria-fornix transection, and 3 groups remaining neurally intact.  

CA3 efferents in the fimbria were transected, taking care to spare cholinergic and GABAergic afferents. fimbria transections, but not dorsal fornix transections, resulted in deficits for the encoding of spatial information during learning of a Hebb-Williams maze. Dorsal fornix, but not fimbria, transections resulted in deficits for retrieval of spatial memory during learning of a Hebb-Williams maze.  

The majority of the strains harbored genes encoding aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF).  

In addition, results from a series of experiments indicate that CERE-110 is neuroprotective and neurorestorative to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the rat fimbria-fornix lesion and aged rat models, and has bioactive effects on young rat basal forebrain cholinergic neurons.  

The hippocampal tail and fimbria-fornix are disrupted posteriorly.  

Suppressor analysis revealed that phenotypes of a cAMP receptor protein (crp) mutant require the fimABCD operon, which is responsible for type 1 fimbria production. Consistently, fimA transcription and fimbria production were determined to be upregulated in a cyaA mutant background by using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The regulatory pathway by which environmental carbon sources influence cAMP concentrations to alter production of type 1 fimbrial adhesins establishes a novel mechanism by which bacteria control biofilm development..  

A complete transection of the hippocampal formation (including dentate gyrus and hippocampus proper, sparing the fimbria) results in a blockade of ictal activities spread from the generator, a reduction in their frequency and an increase in their duration.  

The medial septum diagonal band area (MS/DB) projects to the hippocampus through the fornix/fimbria pathway and is implicated in generating hippocampal theta oscillations. Here, we investigated the physiological role of hippocamposeptal feedback to the MS/DB in a complete in vitro septohippocampal preparation containing the intact interconnecting fornix/fimbria pathway. We next determined the mechanism underlying the rebound spiking that followed the IPSPs in MS/DB GABAergic neurons using phasic electrical stimulation of the fornix/fimbria pathway.  

The genes encoding type 1 fimbria and aerobactin had the highest prevalence.  

OBJECTIVE: To propose a new theory describing the development of the fallopian tube fimbria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Description of a novel theory regarding the embryologic development of the fallopian tube and its fimbria. RESULT(S): In two non-sexually active girls the cause of their pelvic pain was found to be a hydrosalpinx associated with a discontinuous fallopian tube in which the fimbriated end did not directly communicate with the remainder of the fallopian tube. CONCLUSION(S): The two cases of pure congenital fallopian tube atresia, the presence of fimbriae in patients with müllerian (uterine, cervical, and vaginal) agenesis, and the role of the fimbria in ovarian-like and peritoneal cancers, support a novel hypothesis that the fimbria of the fallopian tube may arise separately from the rest of the tube..  

BACKGROUND: Early serous carcinomas predominate in the fimbria of women with BRCA mutations (BRCA+).  

Type IV fimbriae are essential virulence factors of Dichelobacter nodosus, the principal causative agent of ovine foot rot. The fimA fimbrial subunit gene is required for virulence, but fimA mutants exhibit several phenotypic changes and it is not certain if the effects on virulence result from the loss of type IV fimbria-mediated twitching motility, cell adherence, or reduced protease secretion. These data provided evidence that PilT is required for the type IV fimbria-dependent protease secretion pathway in D. It was postulated that sufficient fimbrial retraction must occur in the pilU mutants to allow protease secretion, but not twitching motility, to take place. In addition, virulence studies with sheep showed that both the pilT and pilU mutants were avirulent, providing evidence that mutation of the type IV fimbrial system affects virulence by eliminating twitching motility, not by altering cell adherence or protease secretion..  

In Mecp2J mice, while there was significant reduction in rostrocaudal length of cortex, this parameter was also abnormal in hippocampus ( approximately 10%), periaqueductal gray matter ( approximately 13%), fimbria ( approximately 18%), and anterior commissure ( approximately 10%).  

gingivalis ATCC33277 (wild-type, WT), gingipain-mutants [ KDP136 (DeltargpADeltargpBDeltakgp), KDP129 (DeltargpADeltargpB), and KDP133 (Deltakgp)], and a fimbria-deficient mutant (KDP150) for 24 h, then the cell cycle was evaluated using flow cytometry.  

This study explored the putative role of the principal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurones that project to the hippocampus from the median raphe nucleus in this response to an aversive environment by lesioning the 5-HT fibres that project through the fornix/fimbria and cingulum bundles.  

Urinary tract-originating ASC specific to each patient's own pathogen or P fimbria were studied in 37 children with PN. The most vigorous response was found to whole Escherichia coli bacteria (geometric mean, 63 +/- 2,135 ASC/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells [ PBMC]), yet responses were found to P fimbriae (13 +/- 33 ASC/10(6) PBMC), too.  

FimH is the adhesive subunit of type 1 fimbriae of the Escherichia coli that is composed of a mannose-binding lectin domain and a fimbria-incorporating pilin domain.  

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a periodontal pathogen whose fimbriae are classified into six genotypes (types I-V and Ib) based on the diversity of the fimA genes encoding the fimbrial subunits. gingivalis strains with type II fimbriae are more virulent as compared to those with other types. However, it is unknown if strong virulence is uniformly conserved among clones with type II fimbriae. gingivalis with type II fimbriae using a mouse abscess model to examine their pathogenic heterogeneity and heterogeneity-related factors. METHODS: Suspensions of nine different clinical isolates with type II fimbriae were subcutaneously injected into female BALB/c mice and inflammatory parameters, such as serum sialic acid concentration, were compared. RESULTS: Many of the type II fimbrial isolates caused severe inflammation in the mice, though some were less causative, as was the control strain ATCC 33277 (type I fimbria strain). gingivalis clones with type II fimbriae. gingivalis clones with type II fimbriae..  

The fimbria is the most common site of early serous cancer (tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or STIC) in women with BRCA mutations (BRCA+). A candidate serous cancer precursor--the p53 signature--has been found in nonneoplastic secretory cells of the fimbria, suggesting serous carcinogenesis in the tube (SCAT). Combined with recent reports associating STICs with pelvic serous cancer, this continuum of epithelial change validates the SCAT sequence and the fimbrial secretory cell as the site of origin for many serous carcinomas..  

The myelination of subcortical white matter and the fimbria of hippocampus was measured by 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (CNPase, marker of oligodendrocyte) density at 25 days of age. By contrast, ID rats had significantly lower density of CNPase in the subcortical white matter but the density of CNPase in fimbria of hippocampus was comparable to CN rats.  

(3) As for the method of SAHE, after having entered through the temporal stem into the temporal horn, the hippocampus is dissected between the medial margin of the collateral eminence and the tela chorioidea -fimbria hippocampi.  

Three independent mutants deficient in biofilm growth contained an insertion in a gene locus homologous to the type 3 chaperone-usher class fimbrial genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae. These type 3 fimbrial genes (mrkABCDF), which were located on a conjugative plasmid, were cloned from E. All of these mrkB-positive strains caused type 3 fimbria-specific agglutination of tannic acid-treated red blood cells. This is the first description of type 3 fimbriae in E. Our data suggest that type 3 fimbriae may contribute to biofilm formation by different gram-negative nosocomial pathogens..  

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain J96 carries multiple determinants for fimbrial adhesins. The regulatory protein PapB of P fimbriae has previously been implicated in potential coregulatory events. The focB gene of the F1C fimbria determinant is highly homologous to papB; the translated sequences share 81% identity. In this study we investigated the role of PapB and FocB in regulation of the F1C fimbriae. The effect of FocB on expression of type 1 fimbriae was also tested. coli and suggest a hierarchy for expression of the fimbrial adhesins..  

The present study showed 90% of Id2-immunoreactivity in oligodendrocyte lineage cells in such brain regions as the corpus callosum, optic chiasm, the longitudinal fasciculus of pons, the medial septal nucleus, the fimbria of hippocampus, the anterior commissure, and the pyramidal tract.  

The output from CA3a,b via the fimbria and the medial and lateral perforant path inputs play a supporting role in the neural circuit that supports the operation of these tasks.  

RESULTS: Conditioned fear stress decreased synaptic efficacy and blocked the induction of synaptic potentiation in the fimbria-CA3 pathway.  

fimbrial protein was purified from P. An antibody against 41-kDa fimbrial protein from P. Immunogold electron microscopy revealed that the anti-41kDa fimbrial serum bound to fimbria on the cell surface of P. Thus, fimbrial protein of P. gulae ATCC 51700 had the same size and antigenicity as 41-kDa fimbriae of P. gulae fimbriae are similar to those of P. gingivalis fimbriae.  

O4 sulfatide immunoreactivity was reduced in the external capsule, hippocampal fimbria, and corpus striatum at 4 days relative to that contralaterally, suggesting the loss of preoligodendrocytes.  

In this study, the effectiveness of a vaccine composed of fimbriae of P. METHODS: fimbriae and rCTB were co-administered intranasally to BALB/c mice on days 0, 14, 21, and 28. RESULTS: The rCTB significantly increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig)A levels when mice were administered with a minimal amount (0.5 microg) of the fimbrial antigen. In contrast to systemic responses, a fimbria-specific secretory IgA response was strongly induced by co-administration of rCTB and 0.5 microg fimbriae; the same amount of the antigen alone scarcely induced a response. In addition, nasal administration of the fimbrial vaccine significantly protected the mice from P. CONCLUSION: Nasal vaccination with a combination of fimbriae and rCTB can be an effective means of preventing P.  

Among these, the fimbria of the fornix and the uncinate fasciculus adjacent to the temporal pole were identified more frequently by high-resolution DTI (visualization rate 83 and 100%, respectively) than by conventional DTI (visualization rate 63 and 83%, respectively) at a statistical significance of P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively).  

PATIENT(S): Two cases of anteriorly displaced vagina with stenotic introitus, divergent pubic rami, and varying degrees of bladder exstrophy (group A) and three cases of congenital absence of ampullary portion of the fallopian tube with intact but blind fimbria attached to mesoovarium (group B).  

To examine the potential for ESNPs to incorporate into the adult hippocampus and differentiate into hippocampal neurons or glia following seizure-induced damage, we compared the fates of ESNPs after they were transplanted into the CA3 region or fimbria 1 week following KA-induced seizures. In contrast, most ESNPs transplanted into the fimbria migrated extensively along existing fiber tracts and differentiated into oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Hippocampal grafts in mice not subjected to seizures displayed a marked tendency to form tumors, and this effect was more pronounced in the DG than in the fimbria.  

We have previously found that EPO given to fimbria-fornix transected rats at the moment of injury is able substantially to improve the posttraumatic acquisition of allocentric place learning tasks administered in a water maze as well as in an 8-arm radial maze. Consequently, we presently studied the effects of similarly administered EPO in fimbria-fornix transected and control operated rats, respectively--evaluating the posttraumatic behavioural/cognitive abilities in a spatial delayed alternation task performed in a T-maze. Administration of EPO to the hippocampally injured rats was associated with a substantial reduction of the lesion-associated behavioural impairment--while such an impairment was clearly seen in the saline injected fimbria-fornix transected group.  

Ectopic pregnancy was located in different places on each patient, such as: ampula, 24 cases (77.5%); isthmus, four patients (12.8%); fimbria, one case (3.2%); ovary, one woman (3.2%), and cornual in one patient (3.2%).  

fimbria-associated protein 1 (Fap1) is a high-molecular-mass glycosylated surface adhesin required for fimbria biogenesis and biofilm formation in Streptococcus parasanguinis.  

Of seven consecutive cancers culled between January 1999 and January 2007, all (100%) originated in the fimbrial or ampullary region of the tube; six had an early (intraepithelial) component. Two were associated with surface implants on the ovary and two required repeated sectioning to detect microscopic carcinomas in the fimbria. The greatest proportion of serous cancer risk in BRCA mutation-positive women should be assigned to the fimbria rather than the ovary, and future clinical and research protocols should employ thorough examination of the fimbria, including multiple sections from each tissue block, to maximize detection of early malignancies in this population..  

coli isolates (8.8%) proved exclusively positive for Stx2e and most of these (85.1%) harbored genes for F18 fimbria.  

Salmonella serovars contain a wide variety of putative fimbrial systems that may contribute to colonization of specific niches. In a previous study, we identified a gene, STY3920 (stgC), encoding the predicted usher of the stg fimbrial operon, that was expressed by serovar Typhi during infection of human macrophages. We cloned the stg fimbrial operon into a nonfimbriate E. We demonstrated that the stg fimbrial operon contributed to increased adherence to human epithelial cells. Although the stgC gene contains a premature stop codon that disrupts the expected open reading frame encoding the usher and is therefore considered a pseudogene, our results show that the stg operon may encode a functional fimbria. Thus, this serovar Typhi-specific fimbrial operon contributes to interactions with host cells, and further characterization is important for understanding the role of the stg fimbrial cluster in typhoid fever pathogenesis..  

Anti-B.pertussis fimbria IgG antibody levels were also high by both ELISA and microagglutination tests.  

From a genetic screen for genes that modulate biofilm formation in the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens, mutations in an oxyR homolog and predicted fimbria structural genes were identified. Mutations in oxyR and type I fimbrial genes resulted in severe defects in fimbria-associated phenotypes, revealing roles in cell-cell and cell-biotic surface interactions. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the absence of fimbria-like surface structures on an OxyR-deficient strain and an enhanced fimbrial phenotype in strains bearing oxyR on a multicopy plasmid. The hyperfimbriated phenotype conferred by the multicopy oxyR plasmid was absent in a type I fimbrial mutant background. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR indicated an absence of transcripts from a fimbrial operon in an oxyR mutant that were present in the wild type and a complemented oxyR mutant strain. marcescens biofilm formation by influencing fimbrial gene expression..  

We therefore investigated the effects of 4OH-GTS-21, a selective partial agonist for these receptors, on septohippocampal cholinergic and GABAergic neuron survival following fimbria fornix (FFX) lesions in three strains of mice: C57BL/6J wild type mice; human presenilin-1 mutant M146L (PS1) transgenic mice; and mice expressing both mutant PS1 and Swedish mutant K670N/M671L amyloid precursor protein (APP).  

aeruginosa needs contact with the respiratory epithelial surface and by means of its adhesins i.e., fimbria, hemagglutinins,etc., it recognizes and adheres to the corresponding epithelial receptors.  

The current study investigated the effects of galantamine (0.0 or 3.0mg/kg) in rabbits sustaining knife-cut lesions to the fimbria-fornix, a major projection pathway connecting the hippocampus to cortical and subcortical brain structures involved in the formation of long-term memories.  

Autoradiographic studies performed in brain samples of both groups using [ (125)I]HPP-[ des-Arg(10)]-Hoe-140 (150pM, 90min, 25 degrees C) showed a significant increase in density of B(1) receptor binding sites in the ventral hippocampal commissure (1.23+/-0.07fmol/mg), fimbria (1.31+/-0.05fmol/mg), CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas (1.05+/-0.03 and 1.24+/-0.02fmol/mg, respectively), habenular nuclei (1.30+/-0.04fmol/mg), optical tract (1.30+/-0.05fmol/mg) and internal capsule (1.26+/-0.05fmol/mg) in Abeta group.  

FimH is a mannose-specific adhesin located on the tip of type 1 fimbriae of Escherichia coli that is capable of mediating shear-enhanced bacterial adhesion. FimH consists of a fimbria-associated pilin domain and a mannose-binding lectin domain, with the binding pocket positioned opposite the interdomain interface.  

Porphyromonas gingivalis expresses several virulence factors such as fimbriae and proteases, termed gingipains, which are enzymes that process precursor fimbriae proteins. Thus, gingipain-null mutants lack mature fimbriae. Precursor proteins were treated with VDS and a fimbriated gingipain-null mutant was successfully generated. Experiments showed that the wild strain adhered to and invaded epithelial cells at a greater level than the fimbriated gingipain-null mutant, while adhesion/invasion was prevented in the presence of fetal calf serum, which inhibits gingipain activity. The findings of this study suggest that gingipains expose cellular cryptic ligands in a proteolytic manner and promote fimbriae binding to epithelial cells..  

Exposure to 0.15% BSC or BSM resulted in overproduction of fimbria-like appendages and outer membrane vesicles, and increased expression of genes encoding RND-type efflux pumps and the major outer membrane protein, OmpA.  

Presence of genes associated with pathogenicity islands (PAIS): hlyA, hlyB (hemolysin), sfaG (fimbria antigen type S), cnf1 (cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1), estB (heat-stable enterotoxin B)were studied in these cultures by PCR.  

The acquisition of a spatial delayed alternation task in a T-maze was studied in four groups of rats: animals in which the fimbria-fornix had been transected bilaterally, rats who had received bilateral ablations of the anteromedial prefrontal cortex, animals in which both of these structures had been lesioned, and a sham operated control group. Both of the fimbria-fornix transected groups were significantly impaired even when compared to the group given prefrontal cortical ablations in isolation. The two fimbria-fornix lesioned groups did, however, exhibit levels of functional recovery. The group in which both structures had been lesioned demonstrated a task acquisition, which was significantly inferior to that of the group given fimbria-fornix transections in isolation. This expansion of the inter-trial delay rather selectively impaired the task performance of the group given fimbria-fornix transections in isolation. Consequently, both during the acquisition period and in one of the challenges a differentiation of functional recovery was seen between the combined lesioned group and the group given fimbria-fornix lesions only. This indicates that even in case of a spatial delayed alternation task the prefrontal cortex normally contributes significantly to mediation of posttraumatic functional recovery after isolated lesions of the fimbria-fornix.  

The resulting images were used to determine the mean diffusivity, FA, and principal fiber orientation for manually segmented hippocampal regions that included the stratum oriens, stratum radiatum, stratum pyramidale (CA1 and CA3), stratum lacunosum-molecular, hilus, molecular layer, granule cell layer, fimbria, and subiculum. Water diffusivity ranged from 1.21 +/- 0.22 x 10(-4) mm(2)/s in the fimbria to 3.48 +/- 0.72 x 10(-4) mm(2)/s in granule cells (analysis of variance, P<.001).  

The type 1 fimbriae of Actinomyces naeslundii T14V mediate adhesion of this gram-positive species to the tooth surface. The present findings show that the locus for type 1 fimbria production in this strain includes three genes, fimQ for a minor fimbrial subunit that appears to be an adhesin, fimP for the major structural subunit, and srtC1 for a type 1 fimbria-specific sortase involved in the assembly of these structures..  

gingivalis fimbriae are a critical factor for mediation of interaction of the organism with host tissues, as they promote both bacterial adhesion to and invasion of targeted sites. fimbriae are capable of binding to human salivary components, extracellular matrix proteins, and commensal bacteria, while they also strongly adhere to cellular alpha5beta1-integrin. fimbriae are classified into 6 genotypes (types I to V and Ib) based on the diversity of the fimA genes encoding each fimbria subunit, and intracellular P. gingivalis with type II fimbriae has been found to clearly degrade integrin-related signaling molecules, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase, which disables cellular migration and proliferation.  

This practice has surprisingly revealed that many early cancers in these women arise in the fallopian tube, and further studies have pinpointed the distal (fimbrial) portion as the most common site of origin. Emerging studies that carefully examine the fallopian tubes suggest a high frequency of early cancer in the fimbria in unselected women with ovarian and peritoneal serous carcinoma, raising the distinct possibility that a significant proportion of these tumors have a fimbrial origin.  

In this study, dorsal CA3 efferent fibers in the fimbria were transected; while taking care to spare afferent fibers from the medial septum.  

The relationship of the entorhinal cortex (EC) and fimbria-fornix (FF) in unreinforced spatial (latent) learning was studied using the conditioned-cue-preference task on an eight-arm radial maze. These results indicate that the acquisition of information during unreinforced exploration of a novel environment requires an intact circuit involving the dorsal EC and fimbria fornix.  

The aim of this study was to clarify the growth rates of facultatively anaerobic Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strain in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the expression of type 1 fimbriae in relation to the growth phases. fimbrial antigens were produced in the beginning of logarithmic phase of the growth cycle both in the aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The fimbria remained in the presence of oxygen. enterica serovar Enteritidis strain suspensions grow equally well in constant nitrogenation and aeration, and fimbria were produced in both conditions, during the early logarithmic phase but they prevailed in the presence of aeration..  

Bordetella pertussis fimbria antigens play an important role in the adhesion to the cell surfaces, and induce the formation of protective antibodies in the host. The aim of this study was to purify the fimbria proteins by a rapid and easy method which involved Superdex 75 gel filtration chromatography, and to investigate their immunogenicity. The fimbria proteins purified from the different strains showed single protein bands in 12.5% SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) method. The immunogenicity studies performed in the mice revealed that purified fimbria proteins have led to higher agglutinin response than the vaccine with whole cell pertussis antigens. It was determined that the extent of agglutinin responses were different for different strains from which the fimbria proteins were purified. The results, overall, pointed out the significance of fimbria structure of the B.  

P fimbria, a mannose-resistant adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), has been shown to be associated with acute pyelonephritis. The pap gene cluster encodes the proteins required for P-fimbrial biogenesis, including papG, which encodes the tip adhesin. Studies using different animal models of ascending urinary tract infection (UTI) have demonstrated a variable role for P fimbriae, and specifically PapGII-mediated adherence, in renal colonization. One explanation that is discussed in detail is the contribution of multiple fimbriae of UPEC that potentially mediate adherence to the mammalian kidney. Overall, P fimbriae appear to play some role in mediating adherence to uroepithelial cells in vivo and establishing an inflammatory response during renal colonization, thus contributing to kidney damage during acute pyelonephritis. To verify that P fimbriae contribute to the pathogenesis of UPEC during ascending UTI (and in particular acute pyelonephritis), future studies should be conducted to satisfy fully all three tenets of the molecular Koch's postulates, including complementation of a mutated allele..  

These filamentous organelles are assembled by the chaperone-usher pathway, in which binary complexes between fimbrial subunits and the periplasmic chaperone FimC are recognized by the outer membrane protein FimD (the usher). FimH adhesin initiates fimbriae polymerization and is the first subunit incorporated in the filament. We have analysed the assembly into fimbria, and the interaction with FimD in vivo, of FimH variants in which the N-terminal lectin domain of FimH was deleted or substituted by different immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, or in which these Ig domains were fused to the N-terminus of full-length FimH.  

Porcine ETEC strains typically express K88 or F18 fimbria and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (STa, STb) enterotoxins. coli strains that cause PWD, we applied PCR to screen for K88, F18, F41, 987P and K99 fimbrial genes; LT, STa, STb, Stx2e and EAST1 toxic genes; and AIDA-I, paa and EAE adhesin genes in E. coli isolates from diarrheic pigs submitted for testing, 175 (57.6%) strains possessed fimbrial genes: K88 (64.6%), F18 (34.3%), F41 (0.57%), K99 (0.57%), 987P (0); toxin genes: LT (57.7%), STb (72.6%), STa (27.4%), STx2e (17.4%), EAST1 (35%); and adhesin genes: AIDA-I (26.9%), paa (60%), EAE (1.1%). The non-fimbrial adhesin paa was found present in over half of the K88+ isolates. A total of 129 (42%) isolates carried no fimbrial genes, including 66 (21.7%) isolates that did not have any of the above virulence genes.  

In Experiment 2, a selective transection of dorsal CA3 efferents in the fimbria resulted in deficits for spatial and nonspatial (visual object) novelty detection.  

We found that glycine uptake in white structures of pig forebrain (corpus callosum, fimbria, subcortical pyramidal tracts, and occipital subcortical white matter) was similar to that in gray structures (frontal and temporal cortices and hippocampus), and that it was sensitive to sarcosine, a GLYT1 inhibitor (IC(50) 15 microM).  

We compared glycolytic and TCA cycle activity in rat white structures (corpus callosum, fimbria, and optic nerve) to activities in parietal cortex, which has a tight glycolytic-oxidative coupling.  

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine how the fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis function in plaque formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used scanning electron microscopy to examine aggregates and hemaggregates of fimbria-rich ATCC33277 (parent) and fimbra-poor OZ6301C (pgmA-knockout, mutant) strains of P. Rich fimbriae projecting from cells of the parent strain tended to bunch and form a dense meshwork among bacterial cells. In contrast, cells of the mutant strain projected fewer fimbriae and the meshwork was looser. Hemaggregates including cells of the parent strain contained a detached, dense fimbrial meshwork that adhered to erythrocytes. Hemaggregates comprising cells of the mutant strain included bacterial chains and clusters that adhered to erythrocytes by shorter fimbriae than those of the parent strain. The hemagglutination titer of the parent strain was 10-fold higher than that of the mutant strain, although the number of fimbriae per cell of the parent strain was only double that of the mutant strain. gingivalis adhesiveness is prominently enhanced by the dense fimbrial meshwork. gingivalis is increased by the presence of rich fimbriae..  

Fap1, a fimbria-associated glycoprotein, is essential for biofilm formation of Streptococcus parasanguinis and mediates bacterial attachment to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite, an in vitro tooth model (E.  

Two types of adhesive fimbriae are expressed by Actinomyces; however, the architecture and the mechanism of assembly of these structures remain poorly understood. In this study we characterized two fimbrial gene clusters present in the genome of Actinomyces naeslundii strain MG-1. By using immunoelectron microscopy and biochemical analysis, we showed that the fimQ-fimP-srtC1-fimR gene cluster encodes a fimbrial structure (designated type 1) that contains a major subunit, FimP, forming the shaft and a minor subunit, FimQ, located primarily at the tip. Similarly, the fimB-fimA-srtC2 gene cluster encodes a distinct fimbrial structure (designated type 2) composed of a shaft protein, FimA, and a tip protein, FimB. This mutant produces abundant type 1 fimbriae and expresses the monomeric FimA and FimB proteins, but it does not assemble type 2 fimbriae. Thus, SrtC2 is a fimbria-specific sortase that is essential for assembly of the type 2 fimbriae. Together, our experiments pave the way for several lines of molecular investigation that are necessary to elucidate the fimbrial assembly pathways in Actinomyces and their function in the pathogenesis of different biofilm-related oral diseases..  

A periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis with the type II fimbria gene, is also considered to be a related infectious factor.  

METHODS: Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed to detect the 16SrDNA, collagenase (prtC) and fimbria (fimA) genes of P. gingivalis and the 16SrDNA, leukotoxin (lktA) and fimbria-associated protein (fap) genes of A.  

Prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies in BRCA+ women have recently identified the fimbria as a site of origin for early serous carcinoma (tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or TIC). Cases positive (group A) or negative (group B) for endosalpinx (including fimbria) involvement, were subclassified as tubal, ovarian, or primary peritoneal in origin. Ninety-three percent of TICs involved the fimbriae.  

Cell migration occurred along white matter (WM) tracts (especially the corpus callosum (CC), fimbria, and internal capsule), predominantly early in the acute phase of disease, and in an asymmetric manner.  

At 72 h post-injury, increased immunoreactivity for MAG was seen in the ipsilateral cortex, thalamus and hippocampus of brain-injured animals, and anti-MAG mAb was detectable in the hippocampus, fimbria and ventricles.  

The tubal fimbria is a common site of origin for early (tubal intraepithelial carcinoma or TIC) serous carcinomas in women with familial BRCA1 or 2 mutations (BRCA+). To examine the relationship between p53 signatures and TIC, we compared location (fimbria vs ampulla), cell type (ciliated vs secretory), evidence of DNA damage, and p53 mutation status between the two entities. Like prior studies of TIC, p53 signatures predominated in the fimbriae (80-100%) and targeted secretory cells (HMFG2 + /p73-), with evidence of DNA damage by co-localization of gamma-H2AX. The p53 signature and its malignant counterpart (TIC) underline the significance of the fimbria, both as a candidate site for serous carcinogenesis and as a target for future research on the early detection and prevention of this disease..  

In axonal tracts, ferroportin immunoreactivity was high in fibers of the internal capsule, fimbria, mamillothalamic tract and the habenulo-interpedunculo pathway.  

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a periodontal pathogen whose fimbriae are classified into six genotypes based on the diversity of the fimA genes encoding each fimbria subunit. gingivalis strains with type II fimbriae were more virulent than type I strains. For the present study, we generated the mutants in which fimA was substituted with different genotypes to study virulence of type II fimbriae. BIAcore analysis demonstrated that type II fimbriae possess greater adhesive abilities for their receptor alpha5beta1-integrin than those of type I. These results suggest that type II fimbriae are a critical determinant of P.  

In this study, we show that Salmonella produces an O-antigen capsule coregulated with the fimbria- and cellulose-associated extracellular matrix. Luciferase-based expression studies showed that AgfD regulates the yih operons in coordination with extracellular matrix genes coding for thin aggregative fimbriae and cellulose.  

Degeneration of axotomized GABAergic septohippocampal neurones has been shown to be enhanced in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)-deficient mice following fimbria-fornix transection (FFT), indicating a neuroprotective function of endogenous CNTF.  

Piline domain, a component of FimH, cannot incorporate into the fimbria independently, without lectin domain. It seems that fimbriae containing only piline domain are not formed because of inability of the piline domain to initiate the process of assembly..  

We report that high-affinity uptake of GABA in adult pig corpus callosum, fimbria, subcortical pyramidal tracts, and occipital white matter is approximately 20% of that in temporal cortex gray matter.  

RESULTS: The hippocampus, fimbria, amygdala and choroidal fissure constituting the mesial temporal lobe were intraventricular structures, and uncus, parahippocampal gyrus, and dentate gyrus were extraventricular structures.  

These results were not reproduced after lateral axotomy of the fimbria fornix, indicating a specific role for Sema6C variants in the generation and/or stability of entorhino-hippocampal synapses.  

This study examined whether the cooperation of the hippocampus, and anterior thalamus via the fimbria-fornix is involved in the spatial memory. We compared the effect of contralateral lesions (Contra) with ipsilateral lesions (Ipsi) of the fimbria-fornix and anterior thalamus on the performance of an object exploration task and the Morris water maze task.  

Mature Fap1, a 200-kDa fimbria-associated adhesin, is required for fimbrial biogenesis and biofilm formation in Streptococcus parasanguis.  

Type 3 fimbriae are important adhesive filaments that assist Klebsiella pneumoniae to establish an infection. Different MrkD adhesin variants on the fimbriae are known to display distinct adherence capability for the bacteria to bind extracellular matrix proteins, although the difference has not been determined physically. For this reason, the adhesive force between type 3 fimbriae and collagen IV were measured using optical tweezers. Finally, we first present the adhesive force between each mrkD(V2)-, mrkD(V3)-, and mrkD(V4)-expressed fimbriae and collagen IV is 2.03, 3.79, and 2.87 pN, respectively.  

In monocytes, the fimbriae of the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis activate cross talk signaling from Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to the beta2 integrin CD11b/CD18, leading to the induction of the high-affinity state of the latter receptor. CD14 plays an important role in this "inside-out" proadhesive pathway by binding fimbriae and facilitating the activation of TLR2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. gingivalis fimbriae function as both an activator and a ligand of CD11b/CD18; thus, fimbriae proactively promote their own binding to monocytes. Indeed, treatments that interfered with fimbria-induced activation of CD11b/CD18 (i.e., blockade of CD14, TLR2, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling) also suppressed the cell binding activity of fimbriae, which was largely inducible and CD11b/CD18 dependent. Development of a recombinant inside-out signaling system in Chinese hamster ovary cells confirmed the ability of fimbriae to activate CD14/TLR2 signaling and induce their own CD11b/CD18-dependent binding. gingivalis fimbriae appeared to take place in lipid rafts. Indeed, methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, a cholesterol-sequestering agent that disrupts lipid raft organization, was found to inhibit the fimbria-induced assembly of CD14/TLR2 signaling complexes and the activation of the high-affinity state of CD11b/CD18.  

We have previously shown that outer membrane protein A (OmpA) and type 1 fimbriae are the bacterial determinants involved in Escherichia coli K1 binding to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the blood-brain barrier. coli K1 binding to HBMEC, we showed for the first time that ompA deletion decreased the expression of type 1 fimbriae in E. Decreased expression of type 1 fimbriae in the ompA deletion mutant was largely the result of driving the fim promoter toward the type 1 fimbrial phase-OFF orientation. coli K1 to bind to and invade HBMEC under the conditions of fixing type 1 fimbria expression in the phase-ON or phase-OFF status. These findings suggest that the decreased ability of the OmpA mutant to interact with HBMEC is not entirely due to its decreased type 1 fimbrial expression and that OmpA and type 1 fimbriae facilitate the interaction of E.  

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis play important roles in periodontal inflammation and pathogenesis. We investigated fimbriae and LPS from several P. fimbriae could utilize TLR1 or TLR6 for cooperative TLR2-dependent activation of transfected cell lines, in contrast to LPS and a mutant version of fimbriae which displayed preference for TLR1. Whether used to activate human cell lines or mouse macrophages, fimbriae exhibited strong dependence on membrane-expressed CD14 (mCD14), which could not be substituted for by soluble CD14 (sCD14). LPS-binding protein was more important for LPS- than for fimbria-induced cell activation, whereas the converse was true for CD11b/CD18. Cell activation by LPS or fimbriae required lipid raft function and formation of heterotypic receptor complexes (TLR1-2/CD14/CD11b/CD18), although wild-type fimbriae additionally recruited TLR6. gingivalis LPS or fimbriae involves differential dependence on accessory signalling or ligand-binding receptors, which may differentially influence innate immune responses..  

Lactoferrin blocks EAEC adherence by inducing release and degradation of aggregative adherence fimbria, a key element of EAEC pathogenesis.  

The adhesive tethers of our model system, Escherichia coli, are type I fimbriae, which are anchored to the outer membrane of most E. They consist of a fimbrial rod (0.3-1.5 microm in length) built from a helically coiled structural subunit, FimA, and an adhesive subunit, FimH, incorporated at the fimbrial tip. To understand whether the mechanical properties of the fimbrial rod regulate the stability of the FimH-mannose bond, we pulled the fimbriae via a mannosylated tip of an atomic force microscope. Individual fimbriae rapidly elongate for up to 10 microm at forces above 60 pN and rapidly contract again at forces below 25 pN. At intermediate forces, fimbriae change length more slowly, and discrete 5.0 +/- 0.3-nm changes in length can be observed, consistent with uncoiling and coiling of the helical quaternary structure of one FimA subunit at a time. The force range at which fimbriae are relatively stable in length is the same as the optimal force range at which FimH-mannose bonds are longest lived. Higher or lower forces, which cause shorter bond lifetimes, cause rapid length changes in the fimbria that help maintain force at the optimal range for sustaining the FimH-mannose interaction. The modulation of force and the rate at which it is transmitted from the bacterial cell to the adhesive catch bond present a novel physiological role for the fimbrial rod in bacterial host cell adhesion. This suggests that the mechanical properties of the fimbrial shaft have codeveloped to optimize the stability of the terminal adhesive under flow..  

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains that produce K88 (F4)+ fimbria are important causes of diarrhea and post-diarrheal septicemia in swine.  

To develop anti-inflammatory and/or anticancer drugs for the prevention of oral diseases, such as leukoplakia and destructive chronic periodontitis, whether 2-BHA (2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol) and its synthetic ortho dimer, bis-BHA (3,3'-di-tert-butyl-5,5'-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol) can inhibit AP-1 transcriptional activity stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae was examined. The fimbria-stimulated AP-1 activation of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages was markedly inhibited by bis-BHA. Furthermore, bis-BHA significantly inhibited fimbria-induced COX-2 gene expression, which is closely involved with inflammation and carcinogenesis.  

Olig2-positive, polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule-positive, PDGF receptor alpha-positive, and beta-tubulin-negative cells originating in the SVZ migrated into corpus callosum, striatum, and fimbria fornix to differentiate into the NG2-positive nonmyelinating and mature myelinating oligodendrocytes.  

Behavioral and pharmacological challenges using methamphetamine (MAP-0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), haloperidol (HAL-0.12 mg/kg, i.p.), and sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) were used to evaluate the effects of excitotoxic lesions of cholinergic cell bodies in the medial septal area and the nucleus basalis magnocellularis, radiofrequency lesions of the fimbria-fornix, and aspiration lesions of the frontal cortex on interval timing in rats trained on a 40-s peak-interval procedure.  

Animal model of AD was established with fimbria-fornix transection.  

The rodent dentate gyrus (DG) is formed in the embryo when progenitor cells migrate from the dentate neuroepithelium to establish a germinal zone in the hilus and a secondary germinal matrix, near the fimbria, called the hippocampal subventricular zone (HSVZ). Another subset included EGFP(+)/RIP(+) oligodendrocytes that migrated into the fimbria, corpus callosum, and cerebral cortex.  

Orally administered F4 fimbriae or FaeG, the major subunit and adhesin of F4, induce a protective mucosal immune response in F4 receptor-positive piglets. Glycosylation did not abolish the immunogenic character of the FaeG protein, since erFaeG was able to induce F4 fimbria-specific antibodies in mice.  

We present evidence for a novel TLR2 function in transmodulating the adhesive activities of human monocytes in response to the fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a pathogen implicated in chronic periodontitis and atherosclerosis. gingivalis fimbriae in stimulating monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and transendothelial migration. fimbriae induced CD11b/CD18-dependent adhesion of human monocytes or mouse macrophages to endothelial receptor ICAM-1; these activities were inhibited by TLR2 blockade or deficiency or by pharmacological inhibitors of PI3K. Accordingly, we subsequently showed through the use of dominant negative signaling mutants of small GTPases, that Rac1 mediates the ability of fimbria-stimulated monocytes to bind ICAM-1. Furthermore, fimbriae stimulated monocyte adhesion to HUVEC and transmigration across HUVEC monolayers; both activities required TLR2 and Rac1 signaling and were dependent upon ICAM-1 and the high-affinity state of CD11b/CD18. gingivalis-stimulated monocytes displayed enhanced transendothelial migration compared with monocytes stimulated with nonfimbriated isogenic mutants. gingivalis fimbriae activate a novel proadhesive pathway in human monocytes, involving TLR2, Rac1, PI3K, and CD11b/CD18, which may constitute a mechanistic basis linking P.  

As the habenular nuclei have been shown to influence the release of many neurotransmitters, both in the hippocampus and the nucleus accumbens, we examined in this study the effects of bilateral habenula lesions on the plasticity of the fimbria-nucleus accumbens pathway, by means of the long-term depression phenomenon in freely moving rats. Long-term depression, induced within the shell region of the nucleus accumbens by low-frequency stimulation of the fimbria, was exaggerated and showed greater persistence in habenula-lesioned rats compared with sham-operated animals. These results indicate that plasticity in the fimbria-nucleus accumbens pathway is altered by habenula lesions in a way similar to previously-reported effects of stress and the psychosis-provoking agent ketamine.  

Recent work has demonstrated that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium forms biofilms on HEp-2 tissue culture cells in a type 1 fimbria-dependent manner. These genes encode proteins with a wide range of functions, including antibiotic resistance, central metabolism, conjugation, intracellular survival, membrane transport, regulation, and fimbrial biosynthesis. The identification of five fimbrial gene clusters was of particular interest, as we have demonstrated that type 1 fimbriae are required for biofilm formation on HEp-2 cells and murine intestinal epithelium. Mutations in each of these fimbriae were constructed in S. This is the first work to identify the genomic responses of Salmonella to biofilm formation on host cells, and this work highlights the importance of fimbriae in adhering to and adapting to a eukaryotic cell surface.  

However, little is known about the occurrence of fimbriae. In this study, we examined the distribution of the fimbria gene (hifA) by PCR among 167 H. Electron microscopy showed that fimbriae were abundantly present on the cell surface of hifA-positive strains tested. The present work suggests that fimbriae may play a considerable role as adhesins in nonencapsulated H.  

Here we show that the rdar morphotype, a multicellular phenotype characterized by fimbria- and cellulose-mediated colony pattern formation, enhances the resistance of Salmonella to desiccation. When colonies were stored on plastic for several months in the absence of exogenous nutrients, survival of wild-type cells was increased compared to mutants deficient in fimbriae and/or cellulose production. Measurements of gene expression using luciferase reporters indicated that production of thin aggregative fimbriae (Tafi) may initiate formation of colony surface patterns characteristic of the rdar morphotype.  

Previously, we reported that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis accelerated atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic apoE-/- mice, while an isogenic fimbria-deficient (FimA-) mutant did not. In this study, we utilized 41 kDa (major) and 67 kDa (minor) fimbria mutants to demonstrate that major fimbria are required for efficient P. The purified native forms of major and minor fimbria induced chemokine and adhesion molecule expression similar to invasive P. In addition, the major and minor fimbria-mediated production of MCP-1 and IL-8 was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by P. gingivalis and both purified fimbria, but did not affect P. These results suggest that major and minor fimbria elicit chemokine production in HAEC through actin cytoskeletal rearrangements; however, induction of IL-1beta appears to occur via a separate mechanism. gingivalis and fimbria stimulate endothelial cell activation, a necessary initial event in the development of atherogenesis..  

These divergent views were examined in experiments using electrolytic Lesions of fimbria-fornix (FF) or radiofrequency or neurotoxic Lesions of MT of rats subsequently trained to find a stable visible (experiment 1) or hidden platform (experiments 2 and 3) in a water maze (WM) pool.  

Migration of NPs was observed after injecting an inflammatory stimulus into the area of the fimbria and transplanting enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled NPs into the dentate gyrus of cultured hippocampal slices.  

In the present study, toward our goal of developing a chemopreventive agent for chronic periodontal diseases, we examined whether 2-BHA (2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol) and its synthetic ortho dimer, bis-BHA (3,3'-di-tert-butyl-5,5'-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-2,2'-diol) could inhibit the Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbria-stimulated inflammatory reaction. The fimbria-induced expression of interleukin-1beta and neutrophil chemoattractant KC genes in RAW264.7 murine macrophages was strongly inhibited by bis-BHA. bis-BHA also significantly inhibited the fimbria-stimulated phosphorylation-dependent degradation of the alpha inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB and the transcriptional activity of this factor in the cells.  

We tested the hypothesis that fimbria-fornix deafferentation can provide long-term protection to cornus ammonis 1 neurons and modulate neurogenesis following ischemia. fimbria-fornix lesion or sham-fimbria-fornix lesion was performed on Wistar rats 13 days prior to 10 min forebrain ischemia or sham ischemia. fimbria-fornix lesioning followed by ischemia increased the percentage of new neurons 13-fold over ischemia alone and 6.5-fold over sham lesion plus ischemia. The results indicate that fimbria-fornix deafferentation provides long-term neuroprotection in cornus ammonis 1 following forebrain ischemia and promotes neurogenesis after ischemic insults..  

Long-term protection against severe forebrain ischemia can be conferred by fimbria-fornix (FF) deafferentation, which interrupts the afferent input to CA1.  

Stress has been reported to disrupt the induction of synaptic plasticity in different fimbria target structures. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronic mild stress may also affect synaptic plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex, a fimbria target structure. fimbria tetanus (100 Hz) did not produce any changes in medial prefrontal cortex synaptic efficacy in non-stressed rats.  

We previously found that EPO given to fimbria-fornix transected rats at the moment of injury could substantially improve the posttraumatic acquisition of an allocentric place learning task when such a task is administered in a water maze. Consequently, here we studied the effects of similarly administered EPO in fimbria-fornix transected and control operated rats, respectively, evaluating the posttraumatic behavioral/cognitive abilities in an allocentric place learning task administered in an 8-arm radial maze. The administration of EPO to the hippocampally injured rats was associated with a virtually complete elimination of the otherwise severe behavioral impairment caused by fimbria-fornix transection.  

Lesions of the fimbria-fornix impaired the water and salt CCPs but not the salt LCP, while lesions of the entorhinal cortex impaired the salt LCP but not the CCPs. In contrast, the CCPs depend on the amygdala and a circuit that includes the hippocampus and fimbria-fornix, possibly as a conduit of motivational information from subcortical structures..  

We analyzed a consecutive series of BSOs from BRCA-positive women following an index case of fimbrial serous carcinoma. To determine if the fimbria is a preferred site of origin, we followed a protocol for Sectioning and Extensively Examining the fimbria (SEE-FIM). A fifth carcinoma was discovered following further sectioning of the fimbriae. Three were in the fimbria, one in both the fimbria and proximal tube, and one involved the ampulla. The fimbria was the most common location for early serous carcinoma in this series of BRCA-positive women. Protocols that extensively examine the fimbria (SEE-FIM) will maximize the detection of early tubal epithelial carcinoma in patients at risk for ovarian cancer. Investigative strategies targeting the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube should further define its role in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic ovarian serous carcinomas..  

We have previously shown that the lesion of the fimbria-fornix--the main entrance of subcortical afferents to the hippocampus--abolishes the reinforcing basolateral amygdala-effects on long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus in vivo. Young-adult (8 weeks) Sprague-Dawley male rats were fimbria-fornix-transected under anesthesia, and electrodes were implanted at the dentate gyrus and the perforant path. fimbria-fornix-lesion reduced the ability of the animals to develop long-term potentiation when a short pulse duration was used for tetanization (0.1 ms per half-wave of a biphasic stimulus), whereas increasing the pulse duration to 0.2 ms per half-wave during tetanization resulted in a transient early-long-term potentiation lasting about 4 h in the lesioned animals, comparable to that obtained in non-lesioned or sham-operated control rats. However, in fimbria-fornix-lesioned animals long-term potentiation-reinforcement by drinking was not detected.  

Analysis of one phage-tolerant strain revealed large amounts of the DNA-binding Dps protein in the outer membrane protein and production of fimbria-like structures.  

coli strains, which were collected in sequence, underwent analysis in relation to: the association to pyuria, serotype (O:H), the presence of genes and expression of fimbriae P, type 1, S and hemagglutinin Dr, the presence of the gene and production of hemolysins and cytotoxins (CNF1). Type 1 fimbria predominated in 44% of the E.  

Using the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) genome sequence, we found that EPEC E2348/69 has an lpfABCDE gene cluster homologous (about 60% identical at the protein level) to the Salmonella long polar fimbria (LPF) operon.  

The genes tested included those encoding adhesins (cah, aidA1, and ompA) and mediators of hyperadherence (tdcA, yidE, waaI, and cadA) and those associated with fimbria formation (csgA, csgD, and lpfD2).  

gingivalis, a fimbria-deficient mutant, and purified antigens. gingivalis by fluorescence-activated cell sorter, but not with noninvasive, fimbria-deficient mutant or purified P.  

We have recently demonstrated that type 1 fimbria, a phase-variable virulence factor involved in adherence, was the most highly expressed adhesin during urinary tract infection. Here, we examine whether the expression of type 1 fimbriae can affect the expression of other adhesins. Type 1 fimbrial phase-locked mutants of E. CFT073-specific DNA microarray analysis of these strains demonstrates that the expression of type 1 fimbriae coordinately affects the expression of P fimbriae in an inverse manner. While the role of type 1 fimbriae during infection has been clear, the role of P fimbriae must be further defined to assert the relevance of coordinated regulation in vivo. Therefore, we examined the ability of P fimbrial isogenic mutants, constructed in a type 1 fimbrial-negative background, to compete in the murine urinary tract over a period of 168 h. Interestingly, the mutant that was incapable of expressing either type 1 or P fimbriae compensated by synthesizing F1C fimbriae..  

Antibodies to K99 fimbriae afford protection to F5+ bovine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Previous studies show that murine dams immunized with Salmonella vaccine vectors stably expressing K99 fimbriae confer protection to ETEC-challenged neonatal pups. To begin to address adaptation of the K99 scaffold to display heterologous B- and T-cell epitopes, studies were conducted to determine how much of the assembled K99 fimbria is required to maintain protective immunity. Sequential deletions in the K99 gene clusters were made, resulting in diminished localization of the K99 fimbrial subunit in the outer membrane. As placement of the K99 fimbrial subunit became progressively contained within the vaccine vector, diminished immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG1 antibody titers, as well as diminished Th2-type cytokine responses, were observed in orally immunized mice. Deletion of fanGH, which greatly reduced the export of the fimbrial subunit to the outer membrane, showed only partial reduction in protective immunity. By contrast, deletion of fanDEFGH, which also reduced the export of the fimbrial subunit to the outer membrane but retained more subunit in the cytoplasm, resulted in protective immunity being dramatically reduced. Thus, these studies showed that retention of K99 fimbrial subunit as native fimbriae or with the deletion of fanGH is sufficient to confer protection..  

At surgery a polypoid mass was observed in the fimbria of the left fallopian tube.  

Adhesion of ETEC to intestinal cell receptors mediated by the surface protein F5 fimbriae is the initial step in the establishment of colibacillosis. On the enterocytes, the F5 fimbriae bind to a ganglioside that is also found on horse red blood cells. Thus, the presence of F5 fimbriae induces haemagglutination, which is useful as an indicator in a functional assay system. coli HB2151 reacted with F5 fimbriae in ELISA and Western immunoblot, and prevented haemagglutination induced by the binding of the F5 fimbriae to its natural host receptors on horse red blood cells.  

This non-flagellar IL-8 response required expression of the aggregative adherence fimbria (AAF) adhesin, and was related to the presence of the minor fimbria-associated protein AafB.  

Among the characterized genes were strains with insertions in the intergenic region between agfB, the surface-exposed aggregative fimbria (curli) nucleator, and agfD, a transcriptional regulator of the LuxR superfamily, and rpoS, the stationary-phase sigma factor.  

In the fimbria hippocampus, the anterior commissure posterior showed staining at Clonus 5.  

gingivalis fimbria, a pathogenic adhesion molecule, bound to recombinant human ICAM-1, as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

These structures included the neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, olfactory bulbs, basal forebrain and septum, caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, hypothalamus, central gray, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, the rest of midbrain, cerebellum, brainstem, corpus callosum/external capsule, internal capsule, anterior commissure, fimbria, and ventricles.  

Micro-injection of the 5-HT neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the fimbria-fornix (3.0 microg/side) and the cingulate bundle (1.8 microg/side) depleted hippocampal 5-HT locally but did not change cell proliferation 3 weeks after the surgery.  

Type 1 fimbriae of enterobacteria are heteropolymeric organelles of adhesion composed of FimH, a mannose-binding lectin, and a shaft composed primarily of FimA. We compared the binding activities of recombinant clones expressing type 1 fimbriae from Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhimurium for gut and uroepithelial cells and for various soluble mannosylated proteins. Each fimbria was characterized by its capacity to bind particular epithelial cells and to aggregate mannoproteins. In addition, we found that expression of FimH on a heterologous fimbrial shaft, e.g. coli fimbrial shaft or vice versa, altered the binding specificity of FimH such that it closely resembled that of the native heterologous type 1 fimbriae. coli type 1 fimbriae compared with native K. pneumoniae type 1 fimbriae, were found to be dependent on the background of the fimbrial shaft (E. Thus, the distinct binding specificities of different enterobacterial type 1 fimbriae cannot be ascribed solely to the primary structure of their respective FimH subunits, but are also modulated by the fimbrial shaft on which each FimH subunit is presented, possibly through conformational constraints imposed on FimH by the fimbrial shaft. The capacity of type 1 fimbrial shafts to modulate the tissue tropism of different enterobacterial species represents a novel function for these highly organized structures..  

gingivalis fimbria-mediated invasion upregulates inflammatory gene expression in HAEC and in aortic tissue and indicates that invasive P.  

Genes from four EDL933 fimbria-encoding genomic O islands (OIs) (OI-1, -47, -141, and -154) were identified in the SSH library.  

Type 3 fimbriae are expressed by most strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and facilitate adherence to the basement membrane of human respiratory tissues. A murine model of acute pneumonia was used to determine whether the production of type 3 fimbria-specific antibodies correlated with protection against infection by K. Purified fimbriae from several strains were used to immunize mice prior to challenge with a virulent strain.  

The capsular polysaccharide and type 1 fimbriae are two of the major surface-located virulence properties associated with the pathogenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae. In contrast, type 1 fimbriae are thin adhesive thread-like surface organelles that can extend beyond the capsular matrix and mediate d-mannose-sensitive adhesion to host epithelial cells. These fimbriae are archetypical and consist of a major building block protein (FimA) that comprises the bulk of the organelle and a tip-located adhesin (FimH). pneumoniae capsulated and noncapsulated strains to show that the function of type 1 fimbriae is actually impeded by the concomitant expression of a polysaccharide capsule. Our data suggest that this effect is not due to transcriptional/translational changes in fimbrial gene/protein expression but rather the result of direct physical interference. This was further demonstrated by the fact that we could restore fimbrial function by inhibiting capsule synthesis.  

Normal rats and rats with amygdala or nucleus accumbens lesions exhibited preferences for their morphine-paired compartments; rats with fimbria-fornix lesions had no preferences. Normal rats and rats with fimbria-fornix lesions exhibited preferences, rats with amygdala or nucleus accumbens lesions had no preferences.  

Results from previous studies have indicated that ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and other members of the family of gp130-associated cytokines have neuroprotective effects on septohippocampal projection neurons axotomized by fimbria-fornix transection (FFT).  

However, neuroprogenitor proliferation in the DG is reduced after fimbria-fornix lesions but not after entorhinal deafferentation, which supports the view that neuroprogenitor proliferation and/or differentiation in the DG are controlled from basal forebrain/septal neurons..  

One hundred and four enterotoxin producing Escherichia coli strains of wide geographical origin were tested for the expression of curli fimbriae by transmission electronmicroscopy and by ELISA using curli-specific antibodies, as well as for the presence of curli-specific gene sequences by PCR. All isolates, irrespective of the production of the fimbriae, carried sequences specific for the structure (csgA) and for one of the regulator genes (crl) of curli expression, respectively. Curli fimbriae were detected in 56 strains (53.8 %). On isolates carrying curli at both temperatures the expression of the fimbria was significantly stronger at 30 degrees C than at 37 degrees C.  

fimbria CS3 was observed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy assay.  

We also aimed to evaluate the efficacy of superovulation and freeing the fimbria-ovarica in increasing the conception rate of women with unexplained infertility. During laparoscopy the length of the fimbria-ovarica and the ovulation border was measured. The fimbrio-ovarian accessibility test was demonstrated by holding the tubal fimbria by a non-traumatizing grasper and their ability to reach or cover the ovulation site. The freeing of the fimbria-ovarica was done, if its length was less than 2 cm. RESULTS: The mean length of the fimbria-ovarica was significantly less in patients with unexplained infertility (2.5 +/- 0.6 vs. Out of the 13 cases with negative FOAT, 7 had fimbrial length less than 2 cm and in whom the freeing of fimbria-ovarica was done because of severe resistance during stretching. Out of 7 patients in whom freeing of fimbria-ovarica was done 3 conceived (42.8%). Correcting fimbrio-ovarian relation (freeing short fimbria-ovarica) improves pregnancy rate in women with unexplained infertility..  

Gene expression is studied by RT-PCR in ovariectomized female rats with and without estrogen supplementation within the physiological estradiol range and in rats with complete fimbria-fornix transactions treated with estrogen or vehicle. To clarify mechanisms of estrogen transduction in cholinergic neurons, we study the effects of estrogen treatment on fimbria-fornix-lesioned mice with genetic ablations of ER subtypes alpha and beta.  

Sections from the fimbria, external capsule, thalamus and cerebral cortex from the ipsilateral hemisphere of traumatized and sham-operated animals were prepared and.  

(1) To investigate the effects of long-term cholinergic deafferentation, we lesioned the fimbria-fornix pathway in our AD-model mice at 7 months of age, and 11 months post-lesion the mice were sacrificed for histopathological analysis. The fimbria-fornix transection resulted in a substantial depletion of cholinergic markers in the hippocampus, but the lesion did not result in an alteration in hippocampal A deposition and inflammation (i.e., numbers or staining density of astrocytes and microglia).  

PURPOSE: To evaluate the capacity of amygdala stimulation to improve neural plasticity in animals bearing lesions of the fimbria-fornix (FF) system.  

Although bilateral fimbria-fornix (FF) lesioning impairs spatial performance in animals, the literature is equivocal regarding its effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP).  

coli K1 binding to and invasion of HBMEC were significantly decreased with its fimH deletion mutant and type 1 fimbria locked-off mutant, while they were significantly increased with its type 1 fimbria locked-on mutant. coli K1 strains associated with HBMEC were predominantly type 1 fimbria phase-on (i.e., fimbriated) bacteria. Taken together, we showed for the first time that type 1 fimbriae play an important role in E. coli K1 binding to and invasion of HBMEC and that type 1 fimbria phase-on E.  

Recently, we demonstrated that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can form biofilm on HEp-2 cells in a type 1 fimbria-dependent manner.  

Ruminococcus albus produces fimbria-like structures that are involved with the bacterium's adhesion to cellulose. The subunit protein has been identified in strain 8 (CbpC) and strain 20 (GP25) and both are type IV fimbrial (Pil) proteins. These results suggest that the PilA2 protein plays a role in the synthesis and assembly of type IV fimbriae-like structures by R. albus, but its role is restricted to cell-associated functions, rather than as part of the externalized fimbrial structure..  

At these times, the total G1 proteolytic fragment of brevican was lower in the ipsilateral hippocampus and the level of a protease-generated brevican fragment was significantly diminished in the OL-rich hippocampal fimbria.  

Half of the strains hybridized with the probes for icuA (aerobactin) and fimH (type 1 pili); daaE (F1845 fimbriae), afa (afimbrial Dr adhesin), agg-3A (aggregative adhesion fimbria type III fimbriae), pap (P fimbriae), astA (EAST1 toxin), and shET1 (Shigella enterotoxin 1) sequences were present in <20% of the strains.  

Our analysis revealed that while transcripts related to fastidian gum production were unaffected, colicin-V-like and fimbria precursors were induced in high glucose medium.  

In the present study, we administered leupeptin into the rat ventricle and found that alpha-synuclein-positive structures appeared widely in the neuronal tissue, mainly in neuronal processes of the fimbria and alveus. Immunoelectron microscopic study revealed that alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity was located in the swollen axons of the fimbria and alveus, especially in the dilated presynaptic terminals.  

OBJECTIVE: To clone the recombinant fusion gene of Escherichia coli heat-liable enterotoxin B subunit (Ltb) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans fimbria associative protein (Fap).  

BACKGROUND: A paucity of examples of malignant mixed Mullerian tumors (MMMT) of the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube has been reported. CASE: We report a first case of FIGO Stage IV primary MMMT, heterologous type, in the right fimbria of a 77-year-old woman associated with symptomatic pleural spread who succumbed with recurrent disease 12 months after resection and postoperative paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of intraepithelial carcinoma in this tumor lends support to a role of the epithelial component in fimbrial MMMT histogenesis as seen for MMMT at other anatomic sites.  

coli curli fimbria are produced during starvation and at room temperature.  

We found that mast cell infiltration, as a result of the trauma, occurred primarily in the injured cortex and did not proceed beyond the fimbria of the hippocampus.  

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a predominant periodontal pathogen, whose fimbriae are considered to be a major virulence factor, especially for bacterial adherence and invasion of host cells. In the present study, we investigated the influence of fimbriae on the interactions between alphavbeta3- and alpha5beta1-integrins and their ligand extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (vitronectin and fibronectin), using human alphavbeta3- and alpha5beta1-integrin-overexpressing CHO cell lines (CHOalphavbeta3 and CHOalpha5beta1, respectively). gingivalis was found to have significantly greater binding to CHOalphavbeta3 and CHOalpha5beta1 than to control cells, whereas a fimbria-deficient mutant showed negligible binding to any of the tested cell lines. CHOalphavbeta3 and CHOalpha5beta1 cells attached to the polystyrene culture dishes in the presence of their ligand ECM proteins, while fimbriae markedly inhibited those attachments in a dose-dependent manner, with the highest dose of fimbriae achieving complete inhibition. gingivalis fimbriae compete with ECM proteins for alphavbeta3- and alpha5beta1-integrins, and inhibit integrin/ECM protein-related cellular functions..  

The fimbria showed GFAP+/VN+ cells at its lateral and medial borders from 12 wpo, with pericellular expression of CS.  

Some SVPs carry additional gene loci causatively related to Salmonella virulence like the pef-operon of Typhimurium and Enteritidis strains which encodes an adhesive type of fimbria, or genes traT, rsk and rck which are involved in serum resistance.  

In the current study, the memory effects of clozapine and nicotine administration were determined in rats with lesions of the fimbria-fornix, a fiber bundle which carries cholinergic and other projections between the septum and the hippocampus. Then, 13 rats received bilateral knife-cut lesions of the fimbria-fornix, while 14 rats underwent sham surgery. fimbria-fornix lesions also caused a significant (P<0.05) memory impairment. In contrast to its effects in controls, clozapine (1.25 mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) attenuated the working memory deficit caused by fimbria-fornix lesions. This study demonstrates the efficacy of clozapine in improving working memory in fimbria-fornix-lesioned rats, whereas it causes impairments in intact rats.  

Dentate granule cells were labeled later than (E)16 and originated from a restricted area of neuroepithelium adjacent to the fimbria.  

Our previous study demonstrated that fibronectin (FN) is a negative regulator of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbria-induced pathogenesis in the initiation and development of chronic periodontal diseases. We show herein the regulatory action of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on FN expression in fimbria-treated human gingival fibroblasts. Interestingly, the decrease in FN expression in the cells treated with fimbriae at a high dose (8 microg of protein ml(-1)) was negated by treatment with anti-IL-6 antibody. Also, the increase in FN expression in cells treated with fimbriae at a low dose (1 microg of protein ml(-1)) was inhibited by exogenous IL-6. gingivalis fimbria-stimulated FN expression in human gingival fibroblasts is negatively regulated by endogenous IL-6..  

The acquisition of a water maze based task requiring egocentric spatial orientation in the absence of distal cues was studied in four groups of rats: animals in which the fimbria-fornix had been transected, rats that received bilateral ablations of the anteromedial prefrontal cortex, animals in which both of these structures had been lesioned, and a sham-operated control group. Behavioural challenges in the form of a no-platform session and two reversals of platform position demonstrated that while the sham-operated control group and the group subjected to fimbria-fornix transections in isolation utilized rather pure egocentric orientation strategies, the two prefrontally lesioned groups (and especially the combined lesion group) employed a different set of solution strategies which at least partly relied on a "circling" method.  

The mucosal fold in the boundary between the esophageal and the gastric epithelium of house musk shrew may correspond to the structure called the limiting ridge (in mouse, rat and hamster), the teeth-like fimbria or Grenzfalten (in vole), and the gastric teeth (in crustacean and mollusk).  

In this study, we have demonstrated that acute systemic administration of ketamine, at a dose known to produce hyperlocomotion and stereotypy, depressed the amplitude of the monosynaptic component of fimbria-evoked field potentials recorded in the nucleus accumbens.  

In the fimbria and the spinal cord, similar patterns of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing astrocytes were found in wild-type and mutant mice.  

While in monkeys the accessible white matter fiber connections were comparable to those reported for humans, detectable fiber structures in mice focused on the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, and hippocampal fimbria.  

Stimulation of either perforant path or fimbria fornix induced a prolonged afterdischarge pattern peaking at 200 Hz fast, 20 Hz beta, and 2 Hz Delta frequencies.  

This is a follow-up to our previous study using an intranasal vaccine composed of MrpH, the tip adhesin of the MR/P fimbria, and cholera toxin to prevent urinary tract infection by Proteus mirabilis (X.  

The goal of the present study was to examine the distribution of immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels against three Bordetella pertussis antigens (pertussis toxin [ PT], filamentous hemagglutinin [ FHA], and fimbria types 2 and 3 [ FIM]) and to determine population-based antibody levels for the purpose of establishing such diagnostic cutoff points.  

A DNA fragment encoding the cholera toxin A2 subunit (CTA2) linked to the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colony forming fimbrial antigen CFA/I was inserted into a plant expression vector containing the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) fused to the rotavirus enterotoxin 22 amino acid epitope NSP422. coli H10407 fimbria incubated with immune serum but not on fimbria treated with sera from unimmunized mice demonstrating the specificity of antibodies in the immune serum for binding to CFA/I protein containing fimbria.  

The fim genes which code for the fimbria protective antigens present in both the inactivated whole-cell and acellular vaccines were analyzed in 86 Canadian Bordetella pertussis isolates.  

This study examined the distribution of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2)-immunoreactive neuronal structures in the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampi of unilateral fimbria/fornix transected, unilateral entorhinal cortex ablated, and intact female and male rats. The fimbria/fornix transection caused a significant reduction in the density of VGLUT2-positive boutons only in the CA2 field, while entorhinal cortex ablation elicited no change in fiber density in any of the areas analyzed.  

coli isolates were serogrouped with O-antisera, investigated for hemolytic activity, assessed for F4, F5, F6, F18 and F41 fimbrial antigens by monoclonal antibodies and detected for genes of enterotoxins and shiga-toxin-two-variant (Stx2e) by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Agglutination tests showed that 50.2% (108/215) of these isolates were positive for one or more of the five fimbrial antigens. coli strains expressed single fimbria and 36 strains expressed two or more fimbriae. Of all these isolates, 107 (49.8%) were negative for the fimbrial antigens examined. The fimbria-negative isolates usually possessed genetic determinant of estI (78, 72.9%)..  

Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), expresses several types of fimbria including mannose-resistant/Proteus-like fimbriae (MRP), uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA), renamed non-agglutinating fimbriae (NAF) by some authors, and P. mirabilis fimbriae (PMF), which are potentially involved in adhesion to the uroepithelium. In this study, we immunised different groups of mice with recombinant structural subunits of these fimbriae (MrpA, UcaA and PmfA) using two mucosal routes (nasal and transurethral) and we transurethrally challenged the animals with a P. mirabilis ascending UTI, since recovery of bacteria from kidneys and bladders was significantly lower than in PBS-treated mice, and both fimbrial subunits significantly induced specific serum and urine antibodies. Our results suggest that an immunisation strategy based on structural fimbrial proteins may be useful to prevent P. mirabilis recombinant fimbrial subunits..  

Histological observation of the hydrocephalic brains revealed dilation of the lateral ventricles, loosely bundled corpus callosum, hypoplasia of the septum and fimbria, and thinning of the cerebral cortices.  

Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the Msx1-expressing cells of the hippocampus and fimbria are astrocytes, oligodendrocytes or immature oligodendrocytes. Moreover, using an anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody (GFAP), our study reveals two populations of astrocytes in the adult hippocampus and other areas, such as the fimbria, namely Msx1+/GFAP+ and Msx1-/GFAP+. We also observed co-localization of polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule, a marker of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule, in Msx1-expressing cells in the fimbria. These cells may be precursors of glial cells and originate from the epithelium of the fimbria. The present study indicates, in the mature mouse brain, that Msx1 may be linked to secretory activity in circumventricular organs, and to glial proliferation and differentiation in the hippocampus and fimbria, and presumably also in other cerebral areas.  

fimbria-fornix lesions made before, but not after, PE, and hippocampus lesions made at either time, blocked the discrimination, suggesting that the 2 structures processed different information. A hippocampus/fimbria-fornix system and an amygdala system process different information about the same learning situation simultaneously and in parallel..  

Type 1 fimbriae are the most commonly expressed virulence factor on uropathogenic Escherichia coli. In addition to promoting avid bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium and enabling colonization, type 1 fimbriae recruit neutrophils to the urinary tract as an early inflammatory response. Using clinical isolates of type 1 fimbriated E. coli and an isogenic type 1 fimbria-negative mutant (CN1016) lacking the FimH adhesin, we investigated if these strains could modulate apoptosis in human neutrophils. coli expressing type 1 fimbriae interacted with neutrophils in a mannose- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-dependent manner, leading to apoptosis which was triggered by the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species. This delayed apoptosis could be mimicked by adding purified LPS and was also observed by using fimbriated bacteria in the presence of d-mannose. coli to exert both pro- and antiapoptotic effects on neutrophils and that the difference in LPS presentation (i.e., with or without fimbriae) determines the outcome. The present study showed that there is a fine-tuned balance between type 1 fimbria-induced and LPS-mediated delay of apoptosis in human neutrophils, in which altered fimbrial expression on uropathogenic E.  

The results of the correlated light and electron microscopic double-labeling immunohistochemistry for VGLUT2 and PV, and single immunostaining for VGLUT2 in colchicine-treated animals, showed that (1) VGLUT2-containing boutons establish asymmetric synaptic contacts with PV-positive perikarya and dendrites; (2) a large population of VGLUT2-immunoreactive neurons is located primarily in the posterior division of the septum; and (3) following surgical fimbria/fornix transection and septal undercut, most VGLUT2-containing axons, including those terminating on MSDB PV cells, remains intact.  

LT(-) (DeltaeltAB) and complemented mutants of an F4(+) LT(+) STb(+) EAST1(+) ETEC strain were constructed, and the virulence of these strains was compared in gnotobiotic piglets expressing receptors for F4(+) fimbria.  

RESULTS: Of 31 consecutive patients studied, 26 developed a small, punctate DWI lesion in the lateral aspect of the hippocampal formation (pes and fimbria hippocampi) on either side (left, n = 15; right, n = 6) or bilaterally (n = 5).  

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