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Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus


Double fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed coexpression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNAs at P7 in the somatosensory thalamic nuclei and later in the thalamic dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

The purpose of this study, on mice, was to determine whether memantine, a glutamate-receptor antagonist of the N-methyl-(d)-aspartate (NMDA) subtype, protects against neuronal degeneration in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and superior colliculus (SC) after the induction of retinal damage by intravitreal injection of NMDA.  

We find that tOFF-alphaRGCs project exclusively to the superior colliculus (SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and are restricted to a specific laminar depth within each of these targets.  

Although the possible role of these projections remains unknown, they may provide a modulation of the cholinergic parabrachial neurons which project to the thalamic dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus..  

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) starts more rostrally and occupies a large part of the lateral wall of the thalamus.  

During early postnatal life when spontaneous activity of retinal ganglion cells sweeps across the retina in waves, retinal projections from the two eyes to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) segregate to form non-overlapping eye-specific domains.  

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) not only serves as the obligatory pathway for visual information transfer from the retina to neocortex but can also generate intrathalamic rhythmic activities associated with different arousal states and certain pathological conditions.  

In primates, the IGL is included as part of the pregeniculate nucleus (PGN), a cell group located mediodorsally to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

By combining electrophysiological, immunohistochemical, and computer modeling techniques, we examined the effects of halothane on the standing outward current (I (SO)) and the hyperpolarization-activated current (I (h)) in rat thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

We used spike-triggered current source-density analysis to examine axonal and postsynaptic currents generated in the visual cortex of awake rabbits by spontaneous spikes of individual sustained and transient dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) neurons.  

(2) Neurogenesis in the nucleus rotundus (Rot) and in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (GLd) occurred from S11-12 to S15.  

We measured functional input from short-wavelength selective (S) cones to neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and striate cortex (area V1) in anaesthetized marmosets.  

We examined the synaptic targets of large non-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic profiles that contain round vesicles and dark mitochondria (RLD profiles) in the perigeniculate nucleus (PGN) and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

Intense Atrn expression was also observed in the neuropil of gray matter in many regions of the CNS, such as the main and accessory olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, medial eminence, superior colliculus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, and layers 1 and 2 of the spinal cord.  

We found the connections normally described in the ZRDCT/An mouse between: (i) the inferior colliculus and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, (ii) V1 and the superior colliculus, (iii) the lateral posterior nucleus and V1 and between (iv) the inferior colliculus and the medial geniculate nucleus.  

Inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) process visual information by precisely controlling spike timing and by refining the receptive fields of thalamocortical (TC) neurons.  

SPIG1-positive RGCs in the dorsotemporal domain project to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), superior colliculus, and accessory optic system (AOS).  

Distribution of enzyme cytochrome oxidase (CO) activity was studied in a continuous series of parasagittal sections of cortical area 17 and frontal sections of dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) in kittens of different age and adult cats.  

In contrast to the cortical field potentials, thalamic LFPs (e.g., LFPs derived from recordings in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus) hold no useful information for predicting spiking activity..  

The topography of labeled cells and terminals was analyzed following iontophoretic injections of tracers into the primary visual cortex (V1) or the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd).  

Double fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed coexpression of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 mRNAs at P7 in the somatosensory thalamic nuclei and later in the thalamic dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

These regions include the arcuate nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and tuberomammillary nucleus.  

We observed, in mutant mice, immunolabeled nuclei in the visual thalamus - the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus - in the primary visual area (V1) and a few labeled nuclei in the secondary visual area (V2).  

Similarly, MD had no effect on occ1/Frp mRNA expression level in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mice.  

The model integrates our experimental data, including morphological and intrinsic membrane properties and the number and spatial distribution of four major synaptic input sources of the SSC: the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and three cortical sources.  

Inhibitory pathways project from the pretectal nuclear complex to the ipsilateral superior colliculus (SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

Recordings were obtained from layer 2/3 of the primary visual cortex, of adult freely moving Long Evans rats, after stimulation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were evoked in layer 2/3 of the primary visual cortex after stimulation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Thalamocortical (TC) neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, which receive their sensory input from retina, respond similarly except that the gain, in particular of the sustained component, changes with level of arousal.  

We examined whether microstimulation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus can generate localized visual percepts in alert monkeys.  

In all mammalian species the projections from the two eyes to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus terminate in separate layers or territories.  

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is essential for the transfer of visual information from the retina to visual cortex, and inhibitory mechanisms can play a critical in regulating such information transfer.  

Expression of TYR during neuroblast division helps in later pathfinding by retinal ganglion cells from retina to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Thalamic relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) exhibit a tonic GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated conductance that is correlated with delta-subunit expression.  

We ablated the visual cortex of 10-day-old and adult MT I & II knock out (MT(-/-)) and wild-type mice and then determined the density of microglia in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) over time.  

Six different AC subtypes were found in the developing retinal ganglion cell layer (RGC; AC1, AC2, AC3, AC5, AC8, and AC9), and three AC subtypes were expressed in the central brain targets, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (AC1 and AC8), the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (AC2 and AC8) and the superior colliculus (AC1, AC2, AC8).  

The local interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) give rise to two distinct synaptic outputs: classical axonal and dendrodendritic.  

We also provide the first comprehensive anatomical description of the topographic connections between the retina and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

We studied here the expression of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase in the rat superior colliculus and in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus after unilateral enucleation, by means of immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increase of nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons in specific layers of the superior colliculus and in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus between 1 and 30 days post-lesion. Immunoblotting analyses confirmed that the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase is upregulated in the superior colliculus and in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus after retinal removal. Our real-time PCR results indicated that nitric oxide synthase transcript levels in the superior colliculus were not significantly altered after monocular enucleation, although an upregulation of the enzyme transcription was detected into the deafferented dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

The primary visual pathway in albino mammals is characterized by an increased decussation of retinal ganglion cell axons at the optic chiasm and an enhanced contralateral projection to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

In the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), the neurons have receptive fields with center-surround organization, and spatial resolution may be measured as the inverse of center size.  

Here we demonstrate controlled inhibitory effects on the large corticogeniculate feedback pathway from primary visual cortex to cells of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) that are focal and reversible-induced by either single pulses or trains of pulses of TMS.  

In the developing mammalian visual system, axon terminals from the two eyes overlap in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) but then undergo a period of refinement and segregate to form distinct eye-specific domains.  

We previously showed that BCATc mRNA and protein expression in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus is up-regulated by exogenous administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) following lesion of the visual cortex in newborn rats.  

Using a population density approach we study the dynamics of two interacting collections of integrate-and-fire-or-burst (IFB) neurons representing thalamocortical (TC) cells from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and thalamic reticular (RE) cells from the perigeniculate nucleus (PGN).  

Recently, we showed that metabotropic glutamate receptor activation brings about an intrinsic slow oscillation in thalamocortical neurons of the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in vitro which is identical to that observed in vivo.  

NP1/2 knock-out mice exhibited defects in the segregation of eye-specific retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, a process that involves activity-dependent synapse formation and elimination. These data indicate that NPs are necessary for early synaptic refinements in the mammalian retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

There were also weak projections to the margins of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Using a population density approach we study the dynamics of two interacting collections of integrate-and-fire-or-burst (IFB) neurons representing thalamocortical (TC) cells from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and thalamic reticular (RE) cells from the perigeniculate nucleus (PGN).  

In the first experiment, we examined the effects of induced microgyria to the somatosensory cortex on neuronal numbers, neuronal size, and nuclear volume of three sensory nuclei: ventrobasal complex, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, and medial geniculate nucleus. We found that there was a decrease in neuronal number and nuclear volume in ventrobasal complex of microgyric rats when compared with shams, whereas there were no differences in these variables in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus or medial geniculate nucleus.  

We compared the role of synapsins in two types of glutamatergic synapses on thalamocortical cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mice: retinogeniculate synapses, which transmit primary afferent input at high frequencies and show synaptic depression, and corticogeniculate synapses, which provide modulatory feedback at lower frequencies and show synaptic facilitation.  

Highly structured retinal waves were first observed at E60, >1 week before the segregation of eye-specific retinal dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus projections commences.  

Moreover, unilateral intravitreal injections show that Mn2+ is sufficiently synapse specific to permit visualization of the lamina of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

Thus, it may be that the earlier maturation of the perigeniculate nucleus and its inhibitory input is a necessary requirement for the proper development of retinogeniculate and corticothalamic topographic maps within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and perigeniculate nucleus..  

METHODS: We used a combination of current clamp and voltage clamp recordings in an in vitro brain slice preparation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of macaque monkeys that have chronically self-administered ethanol to determine whether chronic ethanol exposure may affect T-type currents.  

In the lateral geniculate nucleus, however, BDNF mRNA was not detected, and BDNF protein was restricted to punctate and fiber-like structures in the neuropil, especially in the most superficial part of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, just below the optic tract.  

A genetic knockout was used to determine the specific contribution of TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ (TASK)-1 channels to the function of dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLG) thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons.  

Extraretinal projections onto neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) play an important role in modifying sensory information as it is relayed from the visual thalamus to neocortex.  

Examination of retino-recipient regions revealed a decreased number of neurons within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd).  

Because the delta subunit is highly expressed in the thalamus, we tested whether thalamocortical (TC) neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and ventrobasal complex exhibit tonic inhibition.  

In marmosets, midget ganglion cells were retrogradely labeled from the parvocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

In this study, we have investigated the consequences of synaptically released catecholamines on the excitability of neurons in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Here we compared experimentally the response redundancy in area V1 with that in the three main dorsal thalamic afferent streams, the parvocellular (PC), koniocellular (KC), and magnocellular (MC) divisions of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in marmosets.  

The lamina C3 of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat does not receive retinal projections but instead receives visual information from the small subpopulation of W-type ganglion cells via the upper substratum of the stratum griseum superficiale of the superior colliculus. We herein report a projection from the lateral division of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus into the lamina C3 of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

We showed that the Enta, which is located within the dorsal peduncle of the lateral forebrain bundle (Pedd), has roughly topographically organized reciprocal connections with the dorsal thalamic visual nuclei, the nucleus rotundus (Rot) and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (GLd).  

Here we present a modeling and simulation study of the throughput properties of the visually driven dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in the presence of feedback inhibition from the perigeniculate nucleus (PGN).  

In the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, ephrin-A/EphAs are displayed along complementary retinotopic gradients.  

In mammals, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections initially intermingle and then segregate into a stereotyped pattern of eye-specific layers in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

Only 10% were directionally selective, almost all in layer 6, a layer receiving direct input from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN).  

We focused analysis on the largest subcortical targets of primary visual cortex: the superior colliculus (SC), the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN), and the lateral division of the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus (LPL).  

Retinal ganglion cell axons project retinotopically to their principal thalamic target, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd), in a pattern likely dictated by the expression of molecular gradients in the LGd.  

In the mammalian visual system the output of the retina reaches the cerebral cortex by means of a synaptic link within the thalamus, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

In the present study, we have addressed this issue by performing a morphological analysis of alpha RGCs labeled by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of adult cats that received monocular injections of APB from postnatal (P) day 2 until P30.  

The emergence of eye-specific axonal projections to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is a well established model system for exploring the mechanisms underlying afferent targeting during development.  

The tracer showed the connections from the internal cell layers of ventral geniculate nucleus to the medial part of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The labelled terminals in the two parts of the nucleus were analysed with the electron microscope and showed a different synaptic organisation in the two parts of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. GABA-positive myelinated fibres entered and ramified in both parts of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, and GABA-positive terminals were seen to form synapses on the same dendrite near to the asymmetrical contacts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the connection from ventral geniculate internal layer cells to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the chick..  

We tested putative retinogeniculate and corticogeniculate synapses for Group II mGluR modulation within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the ferret thalamus.  

Injections of neurobiotin into the medial cortex resulted in labeled neurons in the ipsilateral dorsomedial anterior nucleus of the thalamus, those in the dorsomedial cortex labeled neurons in the dorsolateral anterior nucleus, and injections into the dorsal cortex resulted in labeled neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.  

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the major thalamic station of the visual pathway, contains a fairly large number of dopaminergic terminals, and dopamine was found to reduce spontaneous and visually evoked activity in the dLGN in vivo.  

However, no significant changes were observed in the number of c-Fos-ir neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus or suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) following photostimulation, except for an increase in the middle of the dark period.  

Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) of high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca2+ channels was investigated in acutely isolated and identified thalamocortical relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) by combining electrophysiological and immunological techniques.  

rho2 mRNA was also expressed in the adult dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. GABA(C) receptor protein expression was confirmed in adult hippocampus, superior colliculus and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus by immunohistochemistry.  

Previous studies in cats have shown that these two modes are associated with significant differences in the visual information carried by spikes in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

In light of recent empirical data, the aim of this paper was to quantify the contribution of area 17 axon connectivity to the synaptic organization of A-laminae in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in cat, the best studied corticothalamic pathway.  

The cytoarchitectonically-uniform dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) can be biochemically and anatomically subdivided in wild-type mice: The nucleus' dorsolateral 'shell' region contains the majority of cells positive for the calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k, and receives the strongest concentration of inputs from the superior colliculus.  

Visual cortex ablation in newborn rats causes a rapid and almost complete degeneration of neurones in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), as a consequence of the axotomy of geniculo-cortical fibres.  

We present a quantitative description of single-cell visual response properties in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of anesthetized adult mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (beta2-/-) and compare these response properties with data from wild-type animals.  

An ultrastructural and quantitative study of age-related changes in the capillaries of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus was carried out using male Wistar rats aged 3, 24, and 28 months.  

Despite late appearance of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mice, no Dlx genes, which promote formation of a GABAergic phenotype elsewhere, were detected in dorsal thalamus.  

Visual cortex ablation in newborn rats determines the almost complete degeneration of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), as a consequence of the axotomy of the geniculo-cortical fibres.  

In urethane-anaesthetized rats, theta-burst stimulation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus induced early phase (1-2 h) long-term potentiation (LTP) of the field postsynaptic potential (fPSP) recorded in the ipsilateral primary visual cortex.  

The pretectal and tectal projections to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (GLd) of two species of turtle (Emys orbicularis and Testudo horsfieldi) were examined under the electron microscope by using axonal tracing techniques (horseradish peroxidase or biotinylated dextran amine) and postembedding gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunocytochemistry.  

In the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), GABA(C) receptors seems to be specifically expressed by local GABAergic interneurons.  

The proposition was tested by deactivating either the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and thereby uncoupling the primary and secondary limbs of the retino-geniculo-parietal pathway, or silencing the terminus of the pathway, and then testing the ability of cats to detect and orient head and eyes to visual targets.  

The spatial properties of the extraclassical receptive fields (ECRF) of neurons responding to a stimulus restricted to it and its interaction with the classical receptive field (CRF) in visual information processing were investigated in 74 relay cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) of anesthetized cats.  

An ultrastructural and quantitative study of the age-related changes occurring in the relay neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) was carried out using male Wistar rats aged 3, 18, 24, and 28 months.  

The projection of retinal ganglion cell axons to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) is organized into eye-specific layers, which are macroscopic structures that reflect the bulk organization of thousands of axons.  

The noradrenergic innervation of the developing dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat was examined with light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. The present findings demonstrate the establishment of the anatomical relationships between noradrenergic afferents and neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus during development and may help to understand the role of noradrenaline in the processing of visual information..  

In some species (notably ferret and mink) the retinogeniculate projections are also segregated into sublayers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dlgn).  

To investigate this component at the corticogeniculate synapse, whole cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from principal cells in a slice preparation of the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

The feedback excitation from the primary visual cortex to principal cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is markedly enhanced with firing frequency.  

In other forebrain areas, P2X(7)R-IR co-localised with VGLUT1-IR throughout the amygdala, caudate putamen, striatum, reticular thalamic nucleus and cortex and with VGLUT2-IR in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, amygdala and hypothalamus.  

We found that in the absence of endogenous BDNF, RGC axons retract from their target in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

We show here that an absence of early retinal waves in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is associated with both gain and loss of functional organization in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

We determined the critical period during development when tyrosinase expression is essential for the appropriate pathfinding of ganglion cell axons from the retina to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. When tyrosinase was expressed throughout the period of neuroblast divisions that produce the ipsilaterally projecting ganglion cells, axonal projections innervated the same volume of the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus as in normal mice.  

We tested the precision of coregulation of numbers of neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in 58 isogenic strains of mice.  

This contrasts with our previous findings that nNOS is specifically expressed within interneurons in the developing dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and serves as further confirmation that the pulvinar nucleus and LGN represent distinct categories of thalamic nuclei..  

While binocularity has been established as an important characteristic of cat visual cortical neurons, neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) are commonly believed to be monocular.  

Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that VGluT1- and VGluT2-immunolabeled terminals made asymmetrical synapses, suggesting that they were excitatory synapses, and that VGluT1-immunolabeled terminals were smaller than VGluT2-labeled ones in many retinorecipient regions, such as the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd) and superior colliculus (SC).  

We present a quantitative analysis of the visual response properties of single neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of wild-type C57Bl/6J mice.  

A recent study suggested that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays differential roles in activity-dependent plasticity between the visual cortex (VC) and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

In this work we studied the effect of aging on the capillaries of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in 3-, 18-, 24-, and 28-month-old rats.  

Within the experimental hemispheres, neurons of area 17 and of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) showed an unusually enhanced and prolonged tonic visual response during episodes of synchronized (syn) EEG activity, whereas response levels during less synchronized states were almost normal.  

To exclude the possibility that differences in neuronal activity per se can induce alterations in cyclophilin A mRNA and protein expression, we analyzed cyclophilin A expression in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of retinally lesioned cats and in area 17 and the dLGN of isolated hemisphere cats.  

We have examined whether calcineurin plays a role during on/off sublamination in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the ferret.  

To examine whether monocular deprivation during the late critical phase gives rise to neuronal apoptosis in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), we used the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labeling method and anterograde tracing.  

Although a very small number reaches the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus from the caudal ganglionic eminence, there is no obvious new source of proliferating neurons at this stage.  

We then show that AdV-mediated ectopic Emx2 expression results in aberrant intracortical pathfinding and areal targeting of TCAs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus most of the labelled cells were found in the laminae A.  

To identify the antidromic neurons, rhodamine microspheres were injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and allowed to retrogradely transport back to the somata of the layer VI cortico-geniculate neurons.  

The segregation of initially intermingled left and right eye inputs to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLGN) during development is thought to be in response to precise spatial and temporal patterns of spontaneous ganglion cell activity.  

Recordings in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the albino ferret show that lamina A1, which receives an aberrant projection from the contralateral eye, contains an extensive representation of the ipsilateral visual hemifield with receptive fields located up to 35 degrees from the vertical meridian.  

Moreover, these progenitors failed to develop characteristic traits of occipital cortex cells as they did not establish connections with the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Using intracellular recordings in an isolated (in vitro) brain stem preparation, we examined the inhibitory postsynaptic responses of developing neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the rat.  

We examined the expression profile of non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and striate cortex (V1) of a New World simian, the marmoset monkey, using the monoclonal antibody SMI-32.  

We compared the ultrastructure and synaptic targets of terminals of cortical or retinal origin in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and lateral posterior nucleus (LPN).  

[ 2001] J Comp Neurol 430:85-100) that roughly 40% of Y retinal terminals contact interneurons in the A lamina of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the cat.  

The surgically-induced retinothalamo-cortical pathways can mediate visually guided behaviors whose normal substrate, the pathway from the retina to the primary visual cortex via the thalamic dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, is missing..  

We investigated the molecular mechanisms of cell death in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat, following suction lesion of the visual cortex at birth or in the third postnatal week, using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3, -7, -8, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.Following lesion at birth, TUNEL-positive neurons were found in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus between 24 h and 3 days after lesion, with a peak on the second day. Shorter survival times (12-18 h) resulted in labeling of very few neurons in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and of several neurons in the perilesional cortex.  

In this animal model, unilateral ablation of the occipital cortex induces apoptosis of corticopetal projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), by 7 days post-lesion, that is p53 modulated and Bax dependent.  

We review results on the in vivo properties of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) that receives its afferent input from the retina and projects to the visual cortex.  

To investigate unitary corticogeniculate excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), whole cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from 20 principal cells in slices of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of DA-HAN rats.  

The visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus is the source of the primary inhibitory projection to the visual thalamic relay nucleus, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

In two species of turtle (Emys orbicularis and Testudo horsfieldi), retrograde and anterograde tracer techniques were used to study projections from the optic tectum to the nucleus rotundus (Rot) and to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (GLd).  

Cells of the cat's perigeniculate nucleus (PGN), part of the visual sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), provide GABAergic inhibition to the A and A1 layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) and, therefore, may control information flow from the retina to the cortex.  

To understand how this diversity develops, we studied the changes in morphology of inhibitory interneurons and changes in interneuron-mediated synaptic transmission in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

Pattern adaptation is very important for visual function, while the mechanisms that mediate pattern adaptation, especially in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd), are still unclear.  

Previous research has demonstrated that thalamocortical neurons within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) are affected by an acoustic, fear-arousing, conditioned stimulus (Cain et al., 2000).  

Neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the anaesthetized cat were activated with test stimuli (flashing spots, counterphased gratings and moving bars) in the presence of a moving background texture.  

Here we show that naturalistic visual stimuli presented through unopened eyelids robustly activate neurons in the ferret dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

We present an alternative mechanistic approach for interpretation of this type of data recorded from X cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of cat.  

The distributions of X and Y optic nerve fibre terminals in the A and A1 laminae of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) of the cat have been determined by a method that eliminates the Y fibres.  

To provide a quantitative comparison of the synaptic organization of "first-order" and "higher-order" thalamic nuclei, we followed bias-corrected sampling methods identical to a previous study of the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN; Van Horn et al.  

Here we investigated the role of patterned spontaneous retinal activity and Hebbian synaptic mechanisms on segregation of ON and OFF retinal afferents in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the developing ferret visual system.  

To investigate paired pulse facilitation of corticogeniculate EPSCs, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from principal cells in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) in vitro.  

We investigated whether responses of single cells in the striate cortex of anaesthetized macaque monkeys exhibit signatures of both parvocellular (P) and magnocellular (M) inputs from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

After such a monocular activation, visual cortical neurons showed a significant ocular dominance shift in favor of the electrically activated eye, although neurons in the activated and nonactivated layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus had no biased visual responses.  

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) transmits visual signals from the retina to the cortex.  

We describe the dendritic development of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) projecting to cortical area 18 in the postnatal cat.  

We have previously shown that in this blind rodent the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, the primary visual thalamic nucleus of sighted mammals, is activated by auditory stimuli. Previous neuronal tracing studies had revealed the origin of the bulk of this auditory input to be the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus which itself receives auditory input from the inferior colliculus..  

Paired-pulse depression was studied at the glutamatergic synapse between retinal afferents and thalamocortical cells in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

This study introduces an in vivo model of axotomy/target deprivation-induced neuronal apoptosis in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus produced by unilateral ablation of the occipital cortex in the immature mouse. We specifically examined whether occipital cortex ablation in the immature brain causes apoptotic death of projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

We have shown previously that raised levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) during development prevent retinal ganglion cell axons from segregating into eye-specific regions in their principal targets: the superior colliculus and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. In the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in contrast, the distribution and size of the ipsilateral retinal projection was normal in all four knockout mice. In the serotonin transporter knockout mice however, the contralateral retinal fibres failed to retract from the mediodorsal dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, an abnormality that was reversed by early treatment with parachlorophenylalanine and in the serotonin transporter/5-HT(1B) double knockout.OUR OBSERVATIONS INDICATE: (1) that the lack of 5-HT transporter and the associated changes in 5-HT levels impair the segregation of retinal axons in both the superior colliculus and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus; (2) that 5-HT and 5-HT(1B) receptors are necessary for the normal refinement of the ipsilateral retinal fibres in the superior colliculus, but are not essential for the establishment of eye-specific segregation in the thalamus. Thus, both an excess and a lack of 5-HT affect the refinement of the superior colliculus retinal projection, while the establishment of eye-specific patterns in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus appears not to be sensitive to the lack of 5-HT or 5-HT(1B) receptors..  

We model feedback from primary visual cortex to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

Optical imaging, combined with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3'-tetramethylin-docarbocyanine perchlolate (DiI) and biocytin retrograde tracing, reveals that relay cells projecting to a single orientation column representing the horizontal meridian were clustered within 300 microm in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN).  

Our results demonstrate that the major projection from the retina is to the contralateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) and the superior colliculus (SC).  

To test whether the pattern adaptation in thalamus is dependent upon postnatal visual experience during early life, the responses of relay cells to prolonged drifting grating stimulation were recorded extracellularly from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of cats reared with binocular and monocular lid suture.  

These results corroborate previous anatomical studies and support the idea that the PT-LGN projection functions to disinhibit thalamocortical cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus..  

To determine the role of RGC death in the establishment of ipsilateral retinofugal projection, we examined the projection pattern in the superior colliculus and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of transgenic mice overexpressing the human bcl-2 gene, which protects against cell death in the CNS.  

However, the actions of serotonin in the dorsal thalamus have been investigated in detail only in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

Single-unit recordings were made in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and visual cortex of kittens that were 4-13 weeks of age.  

Segregated binocular maps in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) develop from a stage where they initially overlap.  

Here we report that in the presence of the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists, trans-ACPD or DHPG, thalamocortical neurones of the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus maintained in vitro exhibit stereotypical spikelets that possess similar properties to those described in other brain areas.  

Projection tracing with WGA-HRP disclosed reciprocal connections between the visual cortex and the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in both intact and enucleated animals.  

Using intracellular recordings in an isolated (in vitro) rat brain stem preparation, we examined the synaptic responses of developing relay neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN).  

In the postnatal day 2 brain, various regions expressed Pc2A including the cerebellar cortex, ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum (Purkinje cells).  

Extracellular physiological recordings in vivo were obtained from neurons in the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in conjunction with electrical activation of the histamine-containing cells in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

The effects of an early, unilateral cerebral hemispherectomy on the cytoarchitecture of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) were quantitatively evaluated in the green monkey.  

We examined the synaptic targets of TRN terminals in the visual thalamus, including the A lamina of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), the medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), the lateral posterior nucleus (LP), and the pulvinar nucleus (PUL).  

Refinement of the retinal pathways to the superior colliculus (SC) and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is mediated by nitric oxide (NO).  

The thalamocortical (TC) cells in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus transfer signals from retinal afferents to the primary visual cortex.  

We report here that patterned (theta burst) stimulation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus reliably induces LTP of field potentials (FPs) evoked in primary visual cortex (Oc1) of adult rats in vivo.  

We have shown that the retinogenigulate pathway undergoes severe degenerative changes in hemispherectomized monkeys, greater than those shown in cats and we proposed that remaining retinal terminals to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus have little potential for conveying visual information any further.  

Here we review the temporal properties of the receptive fields (RFs) of the two best-studied types of ganglion cells in the primate retina, those that project to the parvocellular (P) and magnocellular (M) layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

In the present study, we compared the effects of light on wheel running in mice with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (DLG) to those in sham-operated animals.  

Here we examine the patterns of connections between the zona incerta (ZI) of the thalamus and the major visual centers of the rat brain, namely the retina, dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGd), superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SCs), and occipital cortex (Ocl).  

On the basis of Golgi and Kl├╝ver-Barrera preparations we have distinguished four types of neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the guinea pig: 1.  

The irradiated animals showed a 75% reduction of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The loss in the ganglion cells (15.7%) was significant but clearly smaller than that observed in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (75%). Therefore, the shrinkage of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus led to a reduction in the area available for retinal projections. The effect on the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus is discussed in the light of differences between prenatal and neonatal damage of the presumptive visual cortex.  

During development of the visual system of the ferret, the terminals of retinal ganglion cell axons first segregate to form eye-specific layers and subsequently On-center and Off-center sublayers within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

From postnatal day (P) 1 until P-21, the pattern of zinc histochemical staining in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) precisely matched the distribution of axon terminals from the ipsilateral eye that were labeled by anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase.  

In this animal model, unilateral ablation of the occipital cortex causes unequivocal apoptosis of corticopetal projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) by 7 days postlesion.  

The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) receptors in spatial and temporal properties of the neurons was investigated in the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) using flashing spot and drifting grating stimuli.  

Spatial receptive fields of relay cells in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) have commonly been modeled as a difference of two Gaussian functions.  

Spatial summation and degree of center-surround antagonism were examined in the receptive field of nonlagged cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN).  

In order to study the patterns of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related pathology in the primary visual system of the oldest old, we performed a quantitative analysis of senile plaques (SP), diffuse beta amyloid (A beta) deposit and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) distribution in primary area 17, and a semi-quantitative analysis in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), lateral inferior pulvinar (LIP) and superior colliculus (SC) of 21 individuals aged between 93 and 102 years.  

Although most projection neurons in the primate dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) target striate cortex (V1), a small number project instead to extrastriate visual areas and have been suggested to play a role in the preserved vision ("blindsight") that survives damage to V1.  

METHODS: In a first set of experiments, we studied the effects of microiontophoresis of kynurenate, a broad spectrum antagonist of glutamate receptors, on the excitation evoked in visual cortex cells by electrical stimulation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and the optic tract. In a second set of experiments, we studied the effects of electrical stimulation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and the optic tract on the release of glutamate and aspartate in the visual cortex in vivo.  

One of the largest influences on dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) activity comes from interneurons, which use the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).  

We have compared the spatial summation characteristics of cells in the primary visual cortex with those of cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) that provide the input to the cortex.  

Whereas the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus was strongly immunoreactive for subunits alpha4, beta2 and delta, the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus was predominantly labeled for subunits alpha2, alpha3, beta1, beta3 and gamma2; subunit alpha1- and alpha5-immunoreactivities were about equally distributed in both areas.  

Intracellular recordings were made from thalamocortical neurons in slices of rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in vitro, where ionotropic glutamate receptors and ionotropic and metabotropic GABA receptors had been blocked. This result is consistent with the location of this receptor type on the distal dendrites of thalamocortical neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus..  

Here we report that monocular deprivation for 2, 7, and 14 consecutive days causes p53 accumulation, cell death, and progressive loss of neurones in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of newborn rats and these are prevented by NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists, and by L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis.  

At 1 and 3 months after induction of diabetes, Fluoro-Gold (FG, Chemicon, Temecula, CA) was injected into the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.  

We examined the postnatal development of putative Y cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) using the SMI-32 antibody, which has been demonstrated in the adult cat to stain cells with Y cell morphology.  


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