To assess specificity, R(2) of a contrasting early-myelinating region (splenium of the corpus callosum) was also measured.
Postnatal brain computerized tomography (CT) presented cortical band-like calcification, calcification of basal ganglia and brain stem while brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal gyral pattern, marked loss of white matter, dysplastic ventricles, polymicrogyria, hypogenesis of corpus callosum and cerebellar hypoplasia.
Aicardi syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital chorioretinal lacunae, corpus callosum dysgenesis, seizures, polymicrogyria, cerebral heterotopias, intracranial cysts, and costovertebral defects.
The QROC identified a combination of an enlarged ventral anterior prefrontal cortex and large bending angle of the corpus callosum to distinguish between WS and controls with a sensitivity of 85.4% and specificity of 75.0%.
Lesions were found particularly in the cerebellar peduncles (non-suppurative meningoencephalitis), followed by the corpus callosum, hippocampus and thoracic spinal cord.
In the transcallosal approach, venous tributaries of the superior sagittal sinus can often act as an impediment to entry into the interhemispheric fissure for accessing the corpus callosum. RESULTS: Venous tributaries crossing the interhemispheric fissure were seen in 2 patients and these could be avoided to access the corpus callosum.
Brain MRI of the three patients revealed diffuse cerebral hypomyelination, moderate cerebellar cortical atrophy, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, which were seen in other diffuse hypomyelination syndrome.
We followed the fates of adult OLPs in Pdgfra-creER(T2)/Rosa26-YFP double-transgenic mice and found that they generated many myelinating oligodendrocytes during adulthood; >20% of all oligodendrocytes in the adult mouse corpus callosum were generated after 7 weeks of age, raising questions about the function of the late-myelinating axons.
Abnormalities of the corpus callosum are known to occur in the majority of patients. The objective of the present study was to study the microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC) and the anterior commissure (AC) to differentiate between different mechanisms of damage to these structures.
The same brain regions showed reductions of mAChR at 24 and 72 h after trauma with additional decreases in the corpus callosum, basal forebrain and anterior olfactory.
The midsagittal corpus callosum is topographically organized, that is, with regard to their cortical origin several subtracts can be distinguished within the corpus callosum that belong to specific functional brain networks.
X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia (XLAG) is characterized by lissencephaly, absent corpus callosum and ambiguous genitalia.
One of the most replicated alterations is a significantly smaller corpus callosum (CC), for which conflicting reports exist with respect to the affected callosal segments.
Using a tract-based atlasing approach on six-direction diffusion tensor imaging data, we examined FA within the cingulum, corpus callosum, corticospinal tract, fornix, optic radiations, superior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and the superior and inferior occipitofrontal fasciculi in an all-male sample of 17 children and adolescents with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls.
Moreover, the complete transection of the corpus callosum leads to an increase in testosterone (T) secretion of hemigonadectomized rats.
OBJECTIVE: Many diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of the corpus callosum (CC) have been performed with a relatively thick slice thickness in the axial plane, which may result in underestimating the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC due to a partial volume effect.
In the mouse model of demyelination-remyelination induced by oral administration of cuprizone, in situ hybridization showed an upregulation of the DDR1 gene in three different white matter areas (corpus callosum, dorsal fornix, and external capsule) during the remyelination period. Moreover, real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that the increase in DDR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was strongly correlated with the number of DDR1-positive cells in the corpus callosum (Spearman coefficient = 0.987, P = 0.013).
BACKGROUND: Hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder with genetic linkage to multi-loci.
Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in corpus callosum and corticospinal white matter tracts were determined obtained using quantitative tractography. Diffusion tensor imaging tractography revealed a significantly greater MD in the corpus callosum and corticospinal tracts, whereas FA was significantly smaller in several white matter tract regions.
This case expands the phenotype of this catastrophic epileptic encephalopathy and suggests that the corpus callosum is not necessary for the 'migration' of partial seizures in this syndrome..
Post operatively he had an acute infarct in the posterolateral left temporal lobe with expected evolution of parenchymal contusions as well as infarcts in the splenium of the corpus callosum, left thalamus and medial right occipital lobe.
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) measures the diffusion of water and can be used to describe the integrity of the corpus callosum white matter tracts, thereby providing information concerning possible interhemispheric connectivity abnormalities. Previous DTI studies in schizophrenia are inconsistent in reporting decreased Fractional Anisotropy (FA), a measure of anisotropic diffusion, within different portions of the corpus callosum. Moreover, none of these studies has investigated corpus callosum systematically, using anatomical subdivisions. corpus callosum cross sectional area and its probabilistic subdivisions were determined automatically from structural MRI scans using a model based deformable contour segmentation. The structural scan was then co-registered with the DTI scan and the anatomical corpus callosum subdivisions were propagated to the associated FA map. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides quantitative evidence for a reduction of interhemispheric brain connectivity in schizophrenia, involving corpus callosum, and further points to frontal connections as possibly disrupted in schizophrenia..
An in vivo validation of the technique is also provided, showing its application to the corpus callosum of six healthy volunteers, highlighting the sensitivity of the method.
Cranial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed marked thinning of the corpus callosum.
PURPOSE: To determine the main histological components that affect fractional anisotropy (FA) in postnatal development of the rat corpus callosum and compare FA values with histological changes evaluated quantitatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion tensor image (DTI) data of the rat (postnatal 1-10 weeks) corpus callosum were obtained with a 7.0 T MR scanner. CONCLUSION: During the early development stage in the rat corpus callosum, the strongest contribution to FA value is the area of myelin sheath..
Regions of interest (ROIs) included mesencephalon, corpus callosum and left and right superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP), thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidus, posterior limb of internal capsule, frontal and parietal white matter.
The relationship between cortical asymmetry and the connecting, interhemispheric callosal white matter was also investigated; minicolumn asymmetry of both Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale was correlated with axon number in the wrong subregions of the corpus callosum in patients.
Preterm infants possessed reduced FA mainly within the posterior regions of the corpus callosum.
Cranial CT showed encephalomalacia, widening of the ventricles and the sulci, hemimegalencephaly (predominantly white matter) and partial agenesis of corpus callosum. We conclude that CNS manifestations including hemimegalencephaly, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, neuronal migration defects, and the consequent seizures, may be an rarely recognized manifestation of CLOVE syndrome..
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital disorder that can have significant effects on social and emotional behaviors, including alexithymia, difficulty intuiting the emotional states of others, and deficits in self- and social-awareness that can impair humor, comprehension of non-literal or affective language, and social judgment. To test the hypothesis that VEN number is selectively reduced in AgCC, we used stereology to obtain unbiased estimates of total neuron number and VEN number in postmortem brain specimens of four normal adult controls, two adults with isolated callosal dysgenesis, and one adult whose corpus callosum and ACC were severely atrophied due to a non-fatal cerebral arterial infarction. These results indicate that the VEN population is selectively reduced in AgCC, but that the VENs do not depend on having an intact corpus callosum. We conclude that in agenesis of the corpus callosum the reduction in the number of VENs is not the direct result of the failure of this structure to develop, but may instead be another consequence of the genetic disruption that caused the agenesis.
Keeping in mind that lesions located in the splenium of the corpus callosum can sometimes be temporary may help us avoid invasive diagnostic and therapeutic methods. In this article, we present a non-epileptic patient found to have a centrally located isolated lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum on the tenth day following the sudden withdrawal of carbamazepine after two weeks of use.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the normal-appearing white matter of the corpus callosum (CC) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS).
The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in regions of interest placed in the white matter of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and corpus callosum.
Seven of these cases had associated median alveolar cleft, and 1 had an intranasal tumor, associated with lipoma of corpus callosum, characteristic of the Pai syndrome.
No other brain anomalies, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, or ventriculomegaly were recognized.
BACKGROUND: Measurement of regional atrophy of the corpus callosum and cortical grey matter may differentiate between primary loss of intracortical projecting neurons and primary fibre degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD). METHODS: The regional corpus callosum area and cortical grey matter volumes were measured in 30 patients with the clinical diagnosis of probable AD, 20 patients with the clinical diagnosis of probable VD and 24 healthy elderly control subjects using MRI in two centers in Munich and Amsterdam. RESULTS: Patients with AD showed significantly reduced volumes of cortical grey matter in all cerebral lobes and atrophy of anterior and posterior corpus callosum areas. In VD patients only occipital lobe grey matter volume and anterior corpus callosum area were significantly reduced. In AD patients reduction of cortical grey matter volumes was significantly correlated with regional reductions of corpus callosum areas, but not in VD patients or controls. CONCLUSION: These findings support the notion that measurement of the corpus callosum and cortical grey matter atrophy may identify the underlying causes of cortical disconnection in AD and VD and may be helpful to differentiate between both conditions..
Partial agenesis of corpus callosum and absent septum pellucidum were also seen.
Additional forms are X-linked lissencephaly with corpus callosum agenesis and ambiguous genitalia associated with mutations of the ARX gene.
Inconsistent differences in the corpus callosum (CC) structure between dyslexic readers (DRs) and typical readers (TRs) have been reported.
Volumetric MRI scans from 26 women with repeated episodes of childhood sexual abuse and 17 healthy female comparison subjects (ages 18-22 years) were analyzed for sensitive period effects on hippocampal and amygdala volume, frontal cortex gray matter volume and corpus callosum area. corpus callosum was reduced with childhood sexual abuse at ages 9-10 years, and frontal cortex was attenuated in subjects with childhood sexual abuse at ages 14-16 years.
FG syndrome (FGS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by mental retardation, hypotonia, particular dysmorphic facial features, broad thumbs and halluces, anal anomalies, constipation, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum.
Here we describe, from a cross-sectional sample, brain development in 29 brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance images, focusing on growth patterns in total brain volume, cortical gray and white matter volume, frontal lobe gray and white matter volume, and corpus callosum area. Sex differences in corpus callosum:brain ratio were also found, with males having a 10% smaller corpus callosum:brain ratio than females regardless of age. Female corpus callosum:brain ratio showed significant age-related related changes, whereas males did not display any significant changes across age.
In patients as compared to controls, TBM (permutation test, FDR 0.05) revealed a large coherent cluster of significant atrophy in the brain stem and cerebellar peduncles extending bilaterally through the thalamus, internal and external capsules, putamen, inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum and corona radiata.
PURPOSE: The observation of fetal corpus callosum (CC) is important for the prenatal sonographic assessment of fetal central nervous system development.
The present study examined the expression of heparan sulphate proteoglycan, syndecan-2 (Sdc-2) in the corpus callosum and the amoeboid microglial cells (AMC) in the neonatal rat brain in response to hypoxia. In 1-day old Wistar rats subjected to hypoxia the mRNA and protein expression of Sdc-2 in the corpus callosum, heavily populated by AMC, was increased up to 3 days after the hypoxic exposure.
Reduced FA was observed in the fronto-occipital and inferior temporal fasciculi (particularly posteriorly), the splenium of the corpus callosum, subcallosal white matter and the cingulum bundle.
The midsagittal volume of the full anterior-to-posterior extent of the corpus callosum grew between the first 2 MRIs in both groups followed by regression in the alcohol group by MRI 3.
Interestingly, the longer U3 deletion did not enhance expression in the corpus callosum of the rat brain, suggesting that the extent of silencing of episomal transcription is influenced by tissue-specific factors.
METHODS: Regression analysis modeling on 220 patients who underwent AVM radiosurgery between 1987 and 1992 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center using location as a two-tiered variable resulted in the following equation: AVM score = (0.1) (volume, mL) + (0.02) (age, yr) + (0.3) (location, hemispheric/corpus callosum/cerebellar = 0; basal ganglia/thalamus/brainstem = 1).
The 108 DACA aneurysms were found in seven different locations: frontobasal branches (n = 2); A2 segment (n = 5); A3 segment inferior to genu of corpus callosum (n = 19), anterior to genu of corpus callosum (n = 70), and superior to genu of corpus callosum (n = 1); A4 or A5 segments (n = 7); and distal branches (n = 4).
On MR imaging, other than CTT lesions, associated parenchymal lesion included: none (n = 6); other abnormalities, including periventricular leukomalacia (n = 3); thin corpus callosum (n = 3); ventricular dilatation (n = 2); encephalopathy (n = 2).
We used measures of V(T)/f(P) and estimates of nondisplaceable volume of distribution and found 25%-200% higher values in smokers than in nonsmokers for the volume of distribution for the specific binding compartment in the frontal cortex, midbrain, putamen, pons, cerebellum, and corpus callosum.
Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is among the most frequent human brain malformations with an incidence of 0.5-70 in 10,000. We systematically evaluated the data of 172 patients with documented corpus callosum abnormalities in the records, and 23 patients with chromosomal rearrangements known to be associated with corpus callosum changes. Whenever feasible chromosome and subtelomere analyses as well as molecular genetic testing were performed in patients with disorders of the corpus callosum in order to identify a genetic diagnosis. Our results showed that 41 patients with complete absence (agenesis of the corpus callosum-ACC) or partial absence (dysgenesis of the corpus callosum-DCC) were identified. In our series of cases a variety of genetic causes of disorders of the corpus callosum were identified with cytogenetic anomalies representing the most common underlying etiology..
Recombined cells were co-labelled with Neu-N, but not with GAD67, and were characterized by long range projections (corpus callosum, fornix, thalamocortical).
Despite this, a number of studies have reported white matter activation, particularly when the corpus callosum is targeted using interhemispheric transfer tasks. At liberal statistical thresholds (p < 0.005, uncorrected), group level activation was detected in the isthmus of the corpus callosum. At the individual level, five of the 24 subjects (21%) had activation clusters that were located primarily within the corpus callosum. CONCLUSION: The findings support the idea that, despite the inherent challenges, fMRI activation can be detected in the corpus callosum at the individual level.
The findings of this study suggest that, for prevention of abnormal corpus callosum and for the normal development of the arch, attention should be given to restricting the weight of children's schoolbags and to avoiding their overloaded walking or standing for a long time..
Radiological evidence of corpus callosum distension, gait impairment as the primary symptom, and shorter duration of INPH symptoms predicted improvement.
Mutations in the spatacsin gene have recently been identified as the genetic cause of autosomal-recessive spastic paraplegia (SPG) with thin corpus callosum, mapping to chromosome 15p13-21.
Herein, we present a 34-year-old female MS patient who had recurrent symptoms of alien hand syndrome that were evaluated as MS attacks based on cranial magnetic resonance imaging that showed demyelinating lesions in the corpus callosum.
Methods: MRI of patients treated during vigabatrin therapy was reviewed, following detection of new basal ganglia, thalamus, and corpus callosum hyperintensities in an infant treated for infantile spasms. Discussion: MRI abnormalities attributable to vigabatrin, characterized by new-onset and reversible T(2)-weighted hyperintensities and restricted diffusion in thalami, globus pallidus, dentate nuclei, brainstem, or corpus callosum were identified in 8 of 23 patients.
Temporo-parietal coherence in the alpha band was significantly correlated with diffusivity in predominantly posterior white matter tracts including posterior corpus callosum, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe white matter, thalamus, midbrain, pons, and cerebellum, both in MCI subjects and controls (P < 0.05). In MCI subjects, frontal coherence in the alpha band was significantly correlated with a predominately frontal pattern of diffusivity including fiber tracts of the anterior corpus callosum, frontal lobe white matter, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum (P < 0.05).
Fibertracts found to be abnormal in other DTI studies (uncinate and arcuate fasciculus, anterior and dorsal cingulum, subdivisions of the corpus callosum) were calculated and visualized; tract-specific measurements (fractional anisotropy and trace) were performed.
This syndrome involves hypoplasia of one or both optic nerves, absence of septum pellucidum, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar atrophy, ventricular dilatation and brain cysts, together with ectopic, aplastic or hypoplastic neurohypophysis.
The corpus callosum which consists of many commissure fibers probably reflects cerebral cortical function. Several previous reports showed atrophy or diffusion abnormalities of anterior corpus callosum in PSP patients, but partitioning method used in these studies was based on data obtained in nonhuman primates. In this study, we performed a diffusion tensor analysis using a new partitioning method for the human corpus callosum. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, and the corpus callosum was partitioned into five areas on the mid-sagittal plane according to a recently established topography of human corpus callosum (CC1-prefrontal area, CC2-premotor and supplementary motor area, CC3-motor area, CC4-sensory area, CC5-parietal, temporal, and occipital area). CONCLUSION: The anterior corpus callosum corresponding to the prefrontal, premotor, and supplementary motor cortices is affected in PSP patients.
RESULTS: Fiber tractographies through the corpus callosum (CC) were easily visualized with the 30-direction gradient scheme, and the fiber trajectories of the motor cortex and striatum were well represented in normal rats.
Fiber tractography was used to visualize C6 glioma-induced ischemia of tumor-surrounding tissues, whereas F98 glioma was found to infiltrate and penetrate into the corpus callosum (CC).
To test the role of interhemispheric competition through the corpus callosum in the perceptual alternation of reversible figures, we compared children with callosal pathology and typically developing children on a bistable stimulus task. The children with corpus callosum pathology reported significantly less changes of percepts per minute than the age-matched typically developing children. These results support the hypothesis that the rate of reversal between two interpretations of a bistable stimulus may be partly mediated by the corpus callosum..
When isolated, only spina bifida, holoprosencephaly, and agenesis of the corpus callosum were significantly associated with trisomy 13, anencephaly with trisomy 18, and ventriculomegaly with trisomy 21.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are 2 main hypotheses concerning the cause of mirror movements (MM) in Kallmann syndrome (KS): abnormal development of the primary motor system, involving the ipsilateral corticospinal tract; and lack of contralateral motor cortex inhibitory mechanisms, mainly through the corpus callosum. Regarding white matter alterations, no areas of altered volume involving the corpus callosum or the projection of the corticospinal tract were demonstrated.
The clusters were located primarily in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes and were localized within white matter tracts, including portions of the inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and splenium of the corpus callosum.
Two tumors were intraventricular, and four involved the corpus callosum.
A highly reproducible diffusion tensor imaging tractography technique was used to quantify the fractional anisotropy of the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum as well as the bilateral pyramidal tracts. We found a decline in fractional anisotropy that correlated with the duration of illness in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum but not in the pyramidal tracts.
Spina bifida meningomyelocele with hydrocephalus (SBM) is commonly associated with anomalies of the corpus callosum (CC).
Firstly, increase in TGF-beta1 mRNA expression and TGF-beta1 release was observed in the corpus callosum in postnatal rats subjected to a single hypoxic exposure. Secondly, immunofluorescence labeling showed that the preponderant AMC in the corpus callosum were immunoreactive for TGF-beta1 and its receptors.
Radiographic findings associated with DWV included corpus callosum dysgenesis in 20.8%, ventricular enlargement in 29%, and vermian rotation in 8.3%.
We report on a child with mild mental retardation, hypotelorism, blepharophimosis, face slight asymmetry and partial hypoplasia of corpus callosum, with an interstitial deletion of a chromosome 15.
Immunohistochemistry of brain sections, including brains from glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-deficient mice and primary mixed neural cell cultures, as well as immunoblot analysis and immunoelectron microscopy, have revealed that 1) A3B10 recognizes a majority of cells in ependyma in neonatal and adult rats, 2) A3B10 stains almost all GFAP(+) cells and some S100beta(+) cells in the corpus callosum, 3) A3B10 specifically stains astrocytes in vitro in primary cultures of rat embryonic cerebral hemispheres, 4) A3B10 equally stains ependymal cells of wild-type and GFAP-deficient mice, and 5) A3B10 antigen might construct intermediate filament bundles with GFAP and/or vimentin.
In contrast, adult human PRPs isolated from the corpus callosum required twice the culture period to generate neurospheres, which contained oligodendrocytes, as well as astrocytes, but not neurons.
Measurements of the size, volumes, and growth rates of many regions of the brain, such as the corpus callosum, ventricular system, cortex, deep grey matter, and cerebellum, are all also altered following preterm birth, but there is insufficient evidence to use this data in the clinical setting.
The MS plaques were analyzed for their locations, sizes, shapes, MR signals and enhanced features, space-occupying signs, and the related corpus callosum changes and brain atrophy. All the MS patients had multiple lesions with predilection sites of the cortical/juxtacortical and periventricle areas, the centrum semiovale, and the corpus callosum. Of the 28 MS patients undergoing sagittal scanning of the corpus callosum, 17 presented with abnormal signals, with the sensitivity of 60.71% (17/28). Five patients had corpus callosum atrophy, and 10 had brain atrophy of different degrees.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the corpus callosum is often compromised by the MS lesions to present diffusive, nodular, radiating signal abnormalities and irregular ependymal thickening, which can be most obvious with sagittal FLAIR imaging..
Brain measures included anatomical information about anterior corpus callosum size (CC; the major commissure linking the left and right hemisphere), and the event-related optical signal (EROS).
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined the impact of early life stress (ELS) on the gross morphometry of brain regions, including the corpus callosum. RESULTS: Regression analyses revealed significant reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) within the genu of the corpus callosum among those exposed to the greatest number of early life stressors, suggesting reduced microstructural integrity associated with increased ELS. These effects were most pronounced in the genu of the corpus callosum compared to the body and splenium, and were evident for females rather than males despite no differences in total ELS exposure between the sexes. three or more ELS events revealed lower FA in the genu of the corpus callosum among the ELS-exposed group, with trends of FA reduction in the body and the whole corpus callosum.
Brain MRI analysis included proton density (PD)-lesion volume and T1-hypointensity volume, measures of central atrophy, including the third ventricle width, and corpus callosum (CC).
A difference in language lateralization of brain structure and function in adults has also been suggested, perhaps following size differences in the corpus callosum.
We investigated a range of signal to noise filter cut-off values and highly myelinated critical values and demonstrated a significant correlation (r=0.990, p<0.001) between verbal intelligence quotient scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised and myelination of the corpus callosum in children.
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (ARHSP) with thin corpus callosum is a distinct and usually severe form of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia classified as SPG11. METHODS: We analysed the 40 coding exons of this gene in the probands from eight families with complex ARHSP, four of these families had a thin corpus callosum and two has mild thinning. One family was of Asian origin with a homozygous nonsense mutation and had a very severe phenotype but only very mild thinning of the corpus callosum. In these two families the phenotype was mild and both probands had a thin corpus callosum.
Brain T2-weighted (T2-WI) MR and FLAIR images showed high signal intensities in the suprasellar region and at the genu of the corpus callosum that extended along the sub-pia mater of the right anterior horn.
Relative to asymptomatic controls, symptomatic OSA patients showed damage in the bilateral hippocampus and caudate nuclei, anterior corpus callosum, right anterior thalamus, and medial pons.
The callosal line passes from the most anterior point of the corpus callosum (c = 0) to the most posterior (c = 100). We reconstructed the lesions onto a sagittal map from the Talairach and Tournoux atlas using the distance along the callosal line and the distance above the upper surface of the corpus callosum. RESULTS: The location of neuronal activity distinguished gray and white matter and was useful in delineating the upper and lower cortical banks of the cingulate gyrus, the cingulate bundle, and the corpus callosum. The inferior margins were along the corpus callosum from c = 16 to c = 38.
Distances between trajectories to the coronal suture and the genu of the corpus callosum (CC) and between the posterior border of the anterior commissure to the lower end of the rostrum of the CC and posterior border of the foramen of Monro were measured.
The cistern of the velum interpositum is a space located between the corpus callosum dorsally and the roof of the third ventricle ventrally. There was ventral displacement of the internal cerebral veins and dorsal displacement of the corpus callosum in keeping with a mass in the velum interpositum.
MD and FA in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and in six other subcortical and white matter regions were evaluated bilaterally.
Finally, the role of the corpus callosum in interhemispheric communication is briefly covered. Ultimately, we contrast the view of a corpus callosum serving as an information transmitting channel with that of a fibre tract co-activating the non-engaged hemisphere and preparing it for potential stimulation. In this manner, the corpus callosum minimises disparities in the distribution of attention between the two hemispheres..
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum has been implicated in the modulation of emotional behavior on the basis of neuroimaging studies in humans and lesion analyses in experimental animals.
However, cortex-restricted Rac1 deletion exhibited striking agenesis of commissural axons including the corpus callosum and anterior commissure without affecting other corticofugal axons including corticospinal and corticothalamic projections.
Application of the methods was shown in the comparison of normal subjects and subjects with defined white matter pathology (alterations of the corpus callosum).
corpus callosum agenesis is frequently only the tip of the iceberg in midline commissural anomalies.
Therefore we used Localized Components Analysis, a novel computational method, to measure spatially-localized patterns of corpus callosum (CC) atrophy in 28 right-handed female subjects aged 75-79 years in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-Reykjavik), a large-scale epidemiological study of aging.
The netrin-1 receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) is required for the formation of major axonal projections by embryonic cortical neurons, including the corpus callosum, hippocampal commissure, and cortico-thalamic tracts.
The mid-sagittal area of the corpus callosum significantly declined (22%) over this period, whereas the hippocampal and anterior commissures were not affected.
In addition, regions of interest were positioned in the central white matter at the level of the centrum semiovale, frontal and occipital white matter, splenium of the corpus callosum, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and the thalamus.
For the fasciculi investigated (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, cingulum cingulate gyri, corticospinal tracts and uncinate fasciculi), PNT was able to provide anatomically plausible representations of the tract in question in 70 to 90% of subjects compared with 2.5 to 60% if single seed points were simply transferred directly from standard to native space. In corpus callosum genu there was a significant negative correlation between a PNT-derived measure of tract shape similarity to a young brain reference tract and age, and a trend towards a significant negative correlation between tract-averaged fractional anisotropy and age; results that are consistent with previous dMRI studies of normal ageing.
Since pyruvate carboxylase deficiency is associated with malformations of the brain, e.g., inadequate development of the corpus callosum and the lack of myelination, one can hypothesize that PC may be expressed also in glial cells other than astrocytes.
The cortical areas of the two hemispheres interact via the corpus callosum.
METHODS: Samples of frontal lobe, cerebellum, and corpus callosum were obtained from the brains during autopsy of 4 HSLE cases and 5 normal controls and underwent light microscopy and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Widespread demyelination was seen in the white matter of the frontal lobe, cerebellum and corpus callosum of the HSLE cases, most severely in the cerebellum.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND The presence of transient lesions involving the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) has been described in patients with encephalitis or encephalopathy of varied etiology.
We chose three sites (medial geniculate body, auditory radiation, and splenium of the corpus callosum) of the central auditory pathway for analysis. The splenium of the corpus callosum showed myelinated intensity changes at 16 corrected postnatal weeks on T1-weighted images and at 24 corrected postnatal weeks on T2-weighted images. CONCLUSIONS: As compared to the histological literature, the MRI documented signal intensity changes caused by myelination occurred approximately 3 weeks later for the medial geniculate body, 7-24 weeks later for the auditory radiation and 7-15 weeks later for the splenium of the corpus callosum.
We compared white structures of pig brain (fimbria, corpus callosum, pyramidal tracts, and occipital white matter) to gray structures (temporal, parietal and cerebellar cortices, hippocampus, and caudate) and found that sodium-dependent, high-affinity choline uptake in white structures was 25-31% of that in hippocampus.
Surgical disconnection of the two cerebral hemispheres has granted numerous insights into the functional organization of the corpus callosum (CC) and its relationship to hemispheric specialization.
In SCA1 and SCA2 TBSS revealed decreased fractional anisotropy(FA) in the inferior, middle and superior cerebellar peduncles, pontine transverse fibres, medial and lateral lemnisci, spinothalamic tracts, corticospinal tracts and corpus callosum.
RESULTS: Diffusion tensor imaging revealed significant differences of diffusion parameters in several areas of the brain, including the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, cingulum, corticospinal tracts, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi, globus pallidus, putamen, and thalamus. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate diffusion abnormalities in FASD beyond the corpus callosum and suggest that several specific white matter regions, particularly commissural and temporal connections, and deep gray matter areas of the brain are sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure..
A mega-corpus callosum (CC) is not a common manifestation of neurological disease. Previous reports of patients with a constellation of findings including megalencephaly, perisylvian polymicrogyria, distinct facies, psychomotor retardation and mega-corpus callosum were designated as having megalencephaly, mega-corpus callosum, and complete lack of motor development [ OMIM 603387; also referred to as megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-mega-corpus callosum (MEG-PMG-MegaCC)] syndrome.
Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a lesion involving the entire corpus callosum.
The study of these fetuses at 23, 25, 26 and 35 gestational weeks shows that mutations of TUBA1A are associated with a neuropathological phenotypic spectrum which consistently encompasses five brain structures, including the neocortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brainstem.
DW-SSFP measurements in the corpus callosum of a fixed brain are shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions.
BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraparesis with thin corpus callosum (ARHSP-TCC) is being increasingly recognized as a variety of spastic paraplegia with mental retardation. CONCLUSIONS: Loss-of-function SPG11 mutations are the major cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraparesis with thin corpus callosum in Southern Europe, even in apparently sporadic cases.
Experiments in the laboratory of Roger Sperry showed that section of the corpus callosum blocks the normally strong transfer of information between the two hemispheres of the brain.
The behavioral manifestations of autism, including reduced sociability (reduced tendency to seek social interaction), may be related to underdevelopment of the corpus callosum (CC). The size of the corpus callosum was measured histologically at the midsagittal plane. C57BL/6J mice showed consistently high levels of sociability and normal corpus callosum development.
Ischemia increased BrdU positive cells in the penumbra, subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and cerebral cortex, while cell proliferation was hampered in p50(-/-) mice.
Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we examined area, fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusion, and axial diffusion from six regions of the corpus callosum (CC) in 41 children and adolescents with TBI and 31 comparison children.
Brain MRI revealed mild thinning of the corpus callosum, an apparent decrease in ventricular white matter volume, and an asymmetric myelination pattern.
Fiber maturation reaches steady state in about 10 days for the cortex, to 30-40 days for the corpus callosum, the hippocampus, and the internal and external capsules..
Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed high-intensity signals in the splenium of the corpus callosum on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted images.
MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Multiple regions of lower FA appeared within white matter in the OSA group, and included fibers of the anterior corpus callosum, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and cingulum bundle, right column of the fornix, portions of the frontal, ventral prefrontal, parietal and insular cortices, bilateral internal capsule, left cerebral peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle and corticospinal tract, and deep cerebellar nuclei.
A case of hypocontractile neurogenic bladder associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum is presented. Although no abnormality could be detected on cervical, thoracic and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging and myelography, dysgenesis of the spinal cord or peripheral nerves associated with agenesis of corpus callosum was thought to be the cause of the neurogenic bladder..
The corticospinal tract and the corpus callosum were studied as 'control' white matter (WM).
OBJECTIVE: The corpus callosum (CC) plays a pivotal role in inter-hemispheric transfer and integration of information and is a relatively understudied structure in bipolar disorder (BD).
Computer tomography of the brain revealed cortical and subcortical atrophy, a subdural hygroma in the left frontoparietotemporal region, and hypoplasia of corpus callosum.
The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence, demographic risk factors, and malformations associated with agenesis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum diagnosed in infancy. Using a large population-based registry of birth defects, we ascertained 630 cases of agenesis (ACC) and hypoplasia (HCC) of the corpus callosum diagnosed in the first year of life among 3.4 million live births from 1983 to 2003.
Magnetic resonance imaging showed symmetrical demyelination with partial necrosis in the genu, body, and anterior splenium of the corpus callosum. We speculate that the bimanual coordination is possible because part of the corpus callosum is intact, whereas the antagonistic actions may be caused by conflict between the two hemispheres due to interhemispheric disinhibition elicited by the demyelinated part of the corpus callosum..
Areas of increased white matter density included the cingulum, middle temporal gyrus and splenium of the corpus callosum.
A case of rapid painless visual deterioration without increase in tumor size in a patient with a corpus callosum glioma is presented.
AVMs located in the cerebral hemisphere, the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, the brain stem, the corpus callosum, the optic chiasm and the lateral ventricle.
RESULTS: The most common findings were ventricular dilation (17 studies), cortical atrophy (15), periventricular white matter abnormality (12), thinning of the corpus callosum (8), subcortical white matter abnormality (6), cerebellar atrophy (4), basal ganglionic calcification (3), and myelination delay (3).
Subjects were surgically implanted with stimulating electrodes into the corpus callosum and recording electrodes into the mPFC.
NG2+ cells divide in the anterior and lateral region of the SVZ, and are stimulated to proliferate and migrate out of the SVZ by focal demyelination of the corpus callosum (CC).
Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple demyelinating lesions in periventricular areas, corpus callosum, and spinal cord.
RESULTS: TUNEL result showed the number of apoptotic cells increased at 4 h and peaked at 3 d, decreased at 7 d after WMD of newborn rat; the expression of MK2 mRNA began to increase at 1 h and reached a maximum at 3 d (P<0.05); the expression of Nogo-B in periventricular white matter and corpus callosum of WMD rat was up-regulated at 12 h and peaked at 3 d after cerebral white matter damage, displaying significant differences at 12 h, 1 d, 3 d and 7 d when the Nogo-B expression in WMD rat compared with that observed in the control (P<0.05).
FOXG1B (forkhead box G1B) is a very intriguing candidate gene since it is known to promote neuronal progenitor proliferation and to suppress premature neurogenesis and its disruption is reported in a patient with postnatal microcephaly, corpus callosum agenesis, seizures, and severe mental retardation..
Brain MRI findings were normal or showed a thin or morphologically atypical corpus callosum.
OBJECTIVE: Abnormalities in the anterior interhemispheric connections provided by the corpus callosum (CC) have long been implicated in bipolar disorder (BD).
These data are the first to show age-related changes in gray:white matter ratio and corpus callosum size in bonnet macaques. corpus callosum (CC) size varied significantly as a function of age and CC region.
Acrocallosal Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder which is characterized by moderate to severe mental retardation, agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and polydactyly of fingers and toes. Twenty percent of the patients have associated brain abnormalities such as cerebral atrophy, hypothalamic dysfunction, small cerebrum, micropolygyria, hypoplasia of pons, hypoplasia of cerebellar hemispheres, hypoplasia of medulla oblongata, agenesis or hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis and corpus callosum abnormalities. MRI revealed cerebral atrophy, corpus callosum agenesis, dilated lateral ventricules and unilateral right temporal lobe hypoplasia, the latter not previously reported in the spectrum of this syndrome.
Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured in the following regions: frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal white matter and in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The corpus callosum is an important predilection site for traumatic axonal injury but may be unevenly affected in head trauma. We hypothesized that there were local differences in axonal injury within the corpus callosum as investigated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), varying among patients with differing severity of traumatic brain injury (TBI).
The midsagittal cross-sectional area of the human corpus callosum (CC) has been used by many researchers as a marker of development, natural aging, and neurodegenerative and acquired pathologies.
This may result from an impaired interhemispheric inhibition owing to potential corpus callosum thinning.
The corpus callosum is one of the most prominent fiber systems of the mammalian brain. Two sorts of evidence began to reveal the functions of the corpus callosum. These functional findings are consistent with anatomical and physiological studies of the role of the corpus callosum in communication between the hemispheres..
We found that: 1) significant group-level differences can be obtained in transformed data sets that are in the opposite direction of effects obtained in native space; 2) the effects of transformation are heterogeneous across brain regions, even after covarying for total brain volume and age; 3) volumetric intra-class correlations between native and transformed brains differ by registration method and template choice, region, and tissue type; and 4) transformed brains produced hippocampus and corpus callosum volume proportions that were significantly different from those obtained in native space.
The midsagittal corpus callosum (CC) cross-sectional area subdivisions have been used as early and sensitive markers of human brain white matter connectivity, development, natural aging and disease.
in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:14015-14018, 1997) and corpus callosum volume (Witelson in Science 229:665-668, 1985; Brain 112:799-835, 1989), we tested whether degree of handedness is correlated with transfer magnitude.
Brain magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images showed marked hyperintensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum without other abnormalities.
Twelve years later, follow-up MR imaging showed a round mass in the genu of the corpus callosum.
Fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule increased in the myelomeningocele group (p = 0.02), suggesting elimination of some divergent fascicles; in contrast, the FA in several white matter structures (such as the corpus callosum genu [ p < 0.001] and arcuate fasciculus) was reduced, suggesting disruption of myelination.
We report a patient with a hemorrhagic lesion encroaching upon the posterior third of the corpus callosum but sparing the splenium.
Adult case reports are rare and, to date, there have been no reports of adults with a mild subcortical encephalopathy with reversible lesions of the corpus callosum splenium. The initial magnetic resonance imaging study at day 1 showed symmetrical diffuse lesions in the white matter and a lesion on the central portion of the corpus callosum splenium. CONCLUSION: It is important for clinicians to recognize that even in adulthood, the subcortical encephalopathy observed during the therapeutic treatment for influenza type A infection can occur in conjunction with a reversible lesion of the corpus callosum, which may recover quickly.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) associated with thin corpus callosum is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an abnormally thin corpus callosum, normal motor development, slowly progressive spastic paraparesis and cognitive deterioration. Significant changes with MD increase and FA reduction were found in the already known lesions including the corpus callosum, cerebellum and thalamus.
local measurement of BDNF release, number of hippocampal hilar cells expressing SRIH mRNA and assessment of the corpus callosum damage (morphological examination, pyknotic nuclei counting and axon labeling with anti-MBP antibody).
We studied the corpus callosal area in schizophrenia subjects compared to healthy subjects, while controlling for several confounders that could affect morphometric measures of the corpus callosum (CC).
In the MCI patients, FA values were significantly decreased in the hippocampus, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the splenium of corpus callosum, and in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus compared to the control group. MD values were significantly increased in the hippocampus, the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsules, the splenium of the corpus callosum, the right frontal lobe, and in the superior and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus.
In patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum, the redundancy gain exceeds that predicted by probability summation, suggesting a mediating influence of the corpus callosum in healthy controls. In order to objectify callosal damage in our MS group, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in the corpus callosum were obtained.
WM relaxation times were similar to brain structures with very dense fiber packing (e.g., corpus callosum), while GM values resembled deep GM in brain.
Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent coefficient diffusion (ADC) data were obtained from specific white matter tracts including the corticospinal tracts (CST), corpus callosum (CC), optic radiations (OR), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP).
The aim of this study was to compare the age-related changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) quantified from cerebral white matter (splenium and genu of the corpus callosum and posterior limb of the internal capsule) and cerebellar white matter (middle cerebellar peduncles, superior cerebellar peduncles, and inferior cerebellar peduncles) regions in healthy children ranging in age from birth to 132 months.
Results of MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and the area of the corpus callosum are summarized. Existing research suggests that autistic individuals have larger total brain, cerebellar and caudate nucleus volumes; however, the area of the corpus callosum is reduced.
The boy had a partial agenesis of corpus callosum, oesophageal atresia with tracheo-oesophageal fistula, renal agenesis, ventricular septal defect, Dandy-Walker cyst and low-set malformed ears.
Focal imaging abnormalities of the corpus callosum are rare but have been described in various clinical conditions. We report a patient with a stroke-like episode and transient hypersignal in diffusion with decreased ADC values of the corpus callosum in a setting of sepsis due to a Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.
Anomalies of cerebral asymmetry; also distinct ND brain anomalies such as cavum septi pellucidi or dysgenesis of corpus callosum do not occur more frequently than expected in schizophrenia.
We aimed to investigate whether patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have microstructural changes involving the posterior portion of the corpus callosum (CC), where it links the temporal lobes, using presurgical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. In the TLE patients, the FA values were lower at the splenium of the corpus callosum (WR 7) compared to controls (p<0.05). In conclusion, decreased FA values with decreased lambda1 and increased lambda2 and lambda3 at the splenium of CC suggest that the pathologic changes, Wallerian degeneration, extend to the corpus callosum in TLE patients. Seizure-induced damage may cause secondary white matter degeneration along the tapetum and through the splenium of the corpus callosum, a potential pathway of spread in temporal lobe seizures..
Histological studies carried out in these animals revealed that remyelination in the corpus callosum (CC) of T3-treated rats improved markedly when compared to saline treated animals.
Developmental immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that Tmem10 starts to be expressed in the white matter tracks of the cerebellum and the corpus callosum at the onset of myelination after the appearance of other myelin genes such as MBP.
The following structures were systematically reviewed: ventricles, corpus callosum, gray and white matter, limbic system, basal ganglia, brainstem, and cerebellum. Abnormal ventricles were seen in 43/90 (48%); abnormal corpus callosum was identified in 40/90 (44%). CONCLUSION: Abnormalities of the ventricles and corpus callosum were identified in a large proportion of patients with idiopathic DD, indicative of changes in the white matter.
RESULTS: Focal hyperintensities in the bilateral periventricular white matter, corpus callosum, occipital subcortex, and bilateral thalami were noticed on T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences. The lesions were more marked in the splenium of the corpus callosum.
Results of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and post-mortem neuropathological studies of alcoholics indicate that the greatest cortical loss occurs in the frontal lobes, with concurrent thinning of the corpus callosum.
Other cerebral infarctions were identified in the junction between the left posterior internal capsule and thalamus, in the left posterior corpus callosum, and in the posterior base of the left temporal lobe due to the occlusion of the posterolateral thalamoperforating, posterior pericallosal, and posterior temporal arteries, respectively.
The potassium-chloride co-transporter 3 (KCC3) is mutated in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC); however, the molecular mechanisms of HMSN/ACC pathogenesis and the exact role of KCC3 in the development of the nervous system remain poorly understood.
PURPOSE: Callosal compound action potentials (CCAPs) recorded from the corpus callosum can reveal callosal neuronal activity.
Neuroimages showed brain atrophy, associated in two patients with partial agenesis of the corpus callosum.
From diffusion tensor imaging tractography, we obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) as an index of white matter integrity in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF).
We present a resting state functional connectivity study of a 6-year-old child with a radiologically normal brain imaged both before and after complete section of the corpus callosum for the treatment of intractable epilepsy.
We compared 100 UHR individuals (27 of whom later developed psychosis) with 38 age-matched control subjects on measures of size and shape of the corpus callosum to determine if changes previously demonstrated in first-episode and established schizophrenia are present in the pre-psychotic phase.
Interhemispheric axon fibers connect the two cerebral cortical hemispheres via the corpus callosum and function to integrate information between the hemispheres.
The lesion was located in 13 cases in cerebral hemisphere infiltrating basal ganglia, in 13 cases tumors were diffused within one of the hemisphere but without involvement of basal ganglia, in 7 cases tumors were localized in eloquent areas, in 1 case in posterior commissure, in 1 case it was a tumor of corpus callosum and third-ventricle and in 1 case a tumor was multifocal.
Magnetic resonance imaging in our hospital revealed a large fatty mass located primarily in the septum pellucidum and some portions of the corpus callosum; a heterogeneous enhancing tumor was observed in the surrounding area.
The following regions of interest were assessed: forceps minor (bilaterally), forceps major (bilaterally), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (bilaterally), and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two isolated cases and two affected members of one family with cognitive impairment and confirmed thin corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging were selected from our database for inclusion into a multicenter study. SPG11 should be suspected in patients with isolated or recessive HSP, thin corpus callosum and mental retardation..
Here we show that the early growth response 1 transcriptional factor (Egr-1, also called Krox24, Zif268, and NGFI-A) is expressed in astrocytes in the ventricular wall, corpus callosum, and striatum of normal mouse brain.
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