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Cerebellum


The cerebellum was used as the reference brain region. RESULTS: Regional radioactivity was highest in the caudate head and putamen; mid level in the parahippocampus, cerebral cortex, and thalamus; and lowest in the cerebellum.  

Furthermore, we analyzed acetylcholine (ACh), 5-HT and dopamine (DA) levels, including metabolites, in the cerebellum of H1R-KO and WT mice. The homozygous H1R-KO mice also displayed significantly reduced dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and a reduced DOPAC/DA ratio in the cerebellum, suggesting that the DA turnover in the cerebellum is decelerated in homozygous H1R-KO mice. In conclusion, homozygous H1R-KO mice display severe long-term memory deficits in, both, ELM and PM, which coincide with changes in AChE activity in the hippocampus as well as DA turnover in the cerebellum.  

These cognitive disorders may be related among themselves by faulty learning, since several research studies have shown that the brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in the cerebellum, which plays a role in procedural learning.  

Activations of same brain regions including prefrontal gyrus, temporal gyrus, occipital gyrus and cerebellum were observed in two groups.  

Brain radioactivity uptake was highest in striatum and cerebellum, and it reached 170-270% standardized uptake value (SUV) at 120 min after injection of [ (11)C]3 and 180% SUV at 240 min after injection of [ (18)F]3.  

The [ (11)C]-raclopride data were analyzed with a graphical analysis method using the cerebellum as the input function.  

Theories about the pathophysiology of CMS have evolved along with our understanding of the cerebellum as an important structure in the distributive neurocircuitry underlying complex speech, cognition, and behavior.  

In cerebellum, at least three different TRs are expressed in a cell-specific manner. Not only the expression levels of TRs but also those of cofactors and other nuclear receptors may play a role in regulating thyroid hormone sensitivity in the developing cerebellum. In this article, the effect of thyroid hormone on morphological development of cerebellum and molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action are introduced. Furthermore, possible involvement of other nuclear receptors and cofactors in thyroid hormone action in the developing cerebellum is also discussed..  

Objective Deficits in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling have been described in the prefrontal cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum in individuals with schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate cerebellar gene expression alterations as they relate to decreases in GABAergic transmission by examining the expression of GABAergic markers, N-methyl-d-aspartic-acid (NMDA) receptor subunits, and cerebellum neuromodulators in individuals with schizophrenia. Both haloperidol and clozapine increased the levels of GAD(67) in the cerebellum and altered the expression of other cerebellar mRNAs.  

The functional influence of the SPL on the lateral cerebellum, namely, a possible neural correlate for internal models, increased in the instructed condition, but the influence of the IPL on the cerebellum was increased in the noninstructed condition.  

It has previously been shown that ethanol modulates inhibitory transmission in the cerebellum and affects synaptic transmission and plasticity at excitatory climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell synapses.  

The cerebellum shows remarkable variations in the relative size of its divisions among vertebrate species.  

Rich VGLUT2 mRNA expression was found in the optic tectum, nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis, nucleus isthmi, pars parvocellularis, isthmo-optic nucleus, pontine nuclei, and granular layer of the cerebellum.  

Several lines of evidence suggest that the cerebellum may play a role in the regulation of emotion. These findings provide support for the view that the cerebellum is implicated in the regulation of emotion and mood, and concur with evidence of cerebellar abnormalities observed in disorders associated with emotion dysregulation.  

Inhibitory transmission controls the action potential firing rate and pattern of Purkinje cell activity in the cerebellum. These changes may provide a cellular mechanism underlying associative learning involving the cerebellum..  

Research on the cerebellum is evolving rapidly. The launch of the society for research on the cerebellum (SRC) illustrates how cerebellar research is burgeoning.  

An exciting hypothesis about the cerebellum is that its role is one of state estimation-a process that combines efferent copies of motor commands with afferent sensory signals to produce a representation of the current status of the peripheral motor system. We have recently reported the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the ipsilateral cerebellum as healthy subjects made rapid reaching movements towards visually defined targets (Miall et al. Thus, this interval is likely to reflect physiological processes within the cerebellum rather than the TMS-stimulus duration. This new evidence supports our earlier claim that the cerebellum is responsible for predictively updating a central state estimate over an interval of about 120-140 ms. Dysfunction of the cerebellum, whether through disease or experimental procedures, leads to motor errors consistent with a loss of knowledge of the true state of the motor system..  

Originally considered a subcortical disease of the posterior cerebrum, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome has been shown to affect gray matter and can involve both the anterior and posterior cortex, brainstem, cerebellum or even the spinal cord.  

Furthermore, a differential expression of the Bcl-2 and Bax proteins was found in the differentiating and migrating zones of the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum.  

The localization of inflammatory foci within the cerebellum is correlated to severe clinical outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Outcomes were linked to localization of inflammatory cells in either the spinal cord (wild type [ WT]) or the cerebellum and brain stem (IFN-gamma deficient). Transfer of WT Th1 cells into IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice results in pathogenic invasion of the brain stem and cerebellum with attendant clinical symptoms, which are identical to the disease observed after transfer of IFN-gamma-deficient T cells to WT hosts.  

Based on common MRI findings and the relatively mild clinical courses, we believe that these patients may have another subset form of diffuse hypomyelination syndrome involving the cerebral white matter and cerebellum..  

However, PSD-93 deficiency did not markedly change the amounts of NR2A and NR2B in either synaptosomal or total soluble fractions from cerebellum.  

It has been widely hypothesized that the cerebellum acquires and stores internal models of the motor apparatus. A synthesis of the evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in integrating the current state of the motor system with internally generated motor commands to predict the future state..  

Foetal cerebellar grafts were applied into the cerebellum of Lurchers in the form of solid tissue pieces. Because nerve sprouting and cell migration from the graft to the host cerebellum was poor, the functional effects of the graft should be explained with regard to its trophic influence rather than with any involvement of the grafted cells into neural circuitries..  

In contrast, in cerebellum of Cu-rats CCS was 2-fold higher and COXIV 1.7-fold lower than Cu+ rats consistent with severe copper deficiency.  

The conjunction analysis revealed a set of brain areas that included dorsal auditory pathway areas (left temporo-parietal junction area and ventral premotor cortex), dorsal premotor cortex, the supplementary and presupplementary premotor areas, the cerebellum and the basal ganglia.  

Results from a factorial design revealed significant activity within the right dPMC, the right cerebellum and AIP bilaterally. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Data are discussed in terms of an handedness-independent role for the right dPMC in monitoring hand shaping, the need for bilateral AIP activity for the performance of precision grip movements which varies depending on handedness and the involvement of the cerebellum in terms of its connections with AIP.  

Within this cortical network, MDD patients additionally revealed a pattern of increased functional connectivity in the left DLPFC and the cerebellum compared to healthy controls.  

In contrast, lesions in lentiform nuclei, cerebral hemisphere, or cerebellum were relatively more frequent in patients without delirious behavior.  

In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex.  

Emerging evidence indicates that the different precursor cell populations that form the cerebellum are susceptible to mutations in signal pathways that regulate their functions; these mutations alter normal development programmes and may result in the formation of distinct variants of medulloblastoma.  

In this study we investigated the CoQ(10) status of the substantia nigra, cerebellum, cortex and striatum brain regions of both PD patients and age-matched controls.  

Instead, the onset of righting reflex and negative geotaxis were delayed by 2 days, suggesting vestibular involvement and abnormal functioning of the cerebellum.  

Receptor expression is seen in the superior raphe nucleus, retina, ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, thalamus, posterior tuberculum, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and reticular formation, thus implicating 5-HT signaling in several neural circuits.  

We hypothesize that the cerebellum is involved in movement planning and control by continuously monitoring movement errors and making intermittent corrections that are represented as fluctuations in the speed profile..  

The demographics, involved territories, concomitant lesions outside the cerebellum (CLOC), bilateral involvement, infarct volume, hospital courses, and mechanisms were analyzed.  

Cerebellar ataxic gait is influenced greatly by balance disorders, most likely caused by lesions of the medial zone of the cerebellum.  

The expression pattern for CB1 mRNA appears to be highly conserved across species in key areas such as the cerebellum and portions of the forebrain.  

Clinical, experimental and neuroimaging studies indicate that the cerebellum is involved in neural processes beyond the motor domain. To determine whether existing literature supports the hypothesis of functional topography in the human cerebellum, we conducted an activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies reporting cerebellar activation in selected task categories: motor (n=7 studies), somatosensory (n=2), language (n=11), verbal working memory (n=8), spatial (n=8), executive function (n=8) and emotional processing (n=9). posterior cognitive/emotional dichotomy in the human cerebellum.  

CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that the cerebellum may have a more general role in motor control of grasping independent of task complexity.  

All these cortical areas send information to the pontine nuclei, which in turn provide the input to the cerebellum. The cerebellum contains two pursuit representations: in the paraflocculus/flocculus region and in the posterior vermis. The output of the cerebellum is directed to the moto-neurons of the extra-ocular muscles in the brainstem..  

Cytosolic AST activity reduced by 31.2%, 26.1% and 19.4% in olfactory lobes, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, respectively, whereas cytosolic ALT activity decreased by 51.1%, 52.4%, 47.4% and 36.9% in olfactory lobes, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and medulla oblongata, respectively..  

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". In dementia, the cerebellum is affected in later stages of the disease. CONCLUSION: Contrasting with early theories, cerebellum appears to play a major role in different brain functions other than balance and motor control, including emotional regulation and cognition. Future studies are clearly needed to further elucidate the role of cerebellum in both normal and pathological behavior, mood regulation, and cognitive functioning..  

Therefore, in the present work, we investigated the effects of vitamin A supplementation at clinical doses (1000-9000IU/(kgday)) on redox environment and respiratory chain activity in the adult rat cerebellum. We found increased levels of molecular markers of oxidative damage in the rat cerebellum in any period analyzed. GST enzyme activity was increased in the cerebellum of rats chronically treated with vitamin A.  

Secondary ICH (about 20%) is often associated with vascular abnormalities, tumors, and anticoagulant therapy or coagulation disorders, more frequently located in cerebral lobes or subtentorial (cerebellum or pons).  

To gain insight into the physiological role of PrP(C), we generated a novel PrP knockout cell line, named PrP(o/o) ML, by immortalization of neuroepithelial precursor cells derived from the cerebellum of PrP-knockout mice using the temperature-sensitive simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen.  

Results During the sustained attention condition, patients with noncomorbid ADHD showed significantly reduced activation in the bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and increased activation in the cerebellum relative to patients with noncomorbid conduct disorder and healthy comparison subjects. Patients with noncomorbid conduct disorder showed decreased activation in paralimbic regions of the insula, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate as well as the cerebellum relative to patients with noncomorbid ADHD and healthy comparison subjects.  

AIM: To examine the extent and pattern of GM demyelination in the motor cortex, cingulated gyrus, cerebellum, thalamus and spinal cord in MS. GM demyelination was most extensive in the spinal cord and cerebellum, while WM demyelination was most prominent in spinal cord..  

Medulloblastomas are malignant brain tumors that arise by transformation of neural progenitor cells in the cerebellum in children. In genetically engineered mice, activation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling in neural stem cells in the developing cerebellum induces medulloblastomas.  

BBB permeability changes are largely restricted to the cerebellum and spinal cord in both models but differ in the extent of leakage of markers of different size and in the nature of cell accumulation in the CNS tissues.  

Microarray studies revealed that HDACi 4b treatment ameliorated, in part, alterations in gene expression caused by the presence of mutant huntingtin protein in the striatum, cortex, and cerebellum of R6/2(300Q) transgenic mice.  

Histologic examination of sections of the brains from both animals revealed mild to moderate multifocal aggregates of eosinophils and mononuclear cells in perivascular regions of the meninges and gray matter of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem.  

Although thyroid hormones are crucial for cerebellar development, and several thyroid hormone-dependent genes are known to be correlated with morphological development of the cerebellum, the precise mechanisms of morphological cerebellar changes in hypothyroidism (HT) remain unknown. Taken together, these results suggest that Shh expression is related to the morphological cerebellar changes in experimental hypothyroidism and that sustained signaling by Shh may play a key role in normal development, particularly lobulation, in the cerebellum..  

It has been speculated that the anatomical lesion responsible for the pathological laughing is located in the pontine base, prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum.  

OBJECTIVE: The cerebellum takes part in several motor functions through its influence on the motor cortex (M1). Here, we applied the theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol, a novel form of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) over the lateral cerebellum. The aim of this study was to test whether TBS of the lateral cerebellum could be able to modulate the excitability of the contralateral M1 in healthy subjects.  

Bilateral activations were shown in the cerebellum, superior temporal gyrus, insula, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, and post-cingulate gyrus. Regions active during high pitch production when compared to comfortable pitch were evident in the bilateral cerebellum, left inferior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, and left posterior cingulate.  

The cerebellum is organized into parasagittal zones with respect to the topography of climbing fiber (CF) afferents and the expression of molecular markers such as zebrin II. This is the first explicit demonstration that a series of zebrin stripes corresponds with functional zones in the cerebellum..  

The distribution of the synGAPalpha1 and beta (beta1-4) isoforms in the adult rat brain was clearly different in cerebellum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, septum and olfactory bulb.  

How do multiple brain regions interact, including frontal cortical areas, to decide the choice of a target among several competing moving stimuli? How is target selection information that is created by a bias (e.g., electrical stimulation) transferred from one movement system to another? These saccade-pursuit interactions are clarified by a new computational neural model, which describes interactions between motion processing areas: the middle temporal area, the middle superior temporal area, the frontal pursuit area, and the dorsal lateral pontine nucleus; saccade specification, selection, and planning areas: the lateral intraparietal area, the frontal eye fields, the SNr, and the superior colliculus; the saccadic generator in the brain stem; and the cerebellum.  

Using the analysis tool Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources, we identified the oscillatory network associated with tremor comprising contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex (S1/M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), contralateral premotor cortex (PMC), thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and ipsilateral cerebellum oscillating at 8 to 10 Hz.  

The cerebellum has been described as an "on-line" comparator and corrector of movement, but recent research suggests that the cerebellum may also have a role in the later stages of motor learning, including the automation of movement patterns, although conflicting research in this area means that there is as yet no consensus.  

The visual and somatosensory systems, pyramidal and extrapyramidal motor system (cerebellum, basal ganglia, cerebrum) and intellectual development, compensate for vestibular failure in infants and children with congenitally hypoactive or absent function of the semicircular canals and otolith organs..  

We investigated the expression of four GABA(A) receptor subunits and observed significant reductions in GABRA1, GABRA2, GABRA3, and GABRB3 in parietal cortex (Brodmann's Area 40 (BA40)), while GABRA1 and GABRB3 were significantly altered in cerebellum, and GABRA1 was significantly altered in superior frontal cortex (BA9).  

The cerebellum appears to be an important site for acquisition of internal models, and indeed the development of the cerebellum is abnormal in autism.  

However, in the lowest slice, the anterior (temporal) region showed a mean asymmetry value of 0.89 +/- 0.15, and on comparing it with the mean of the asymmetry indices of the posterior region (cerebellum), it showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05).  

Foramen magnum decompression was performed to relieve the compression of the cerebellum.  

Our results demonstrated that NVP and EFV significantly inhibited CK activity in cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum and cortex of mice.  

Recent evidence suggests a role for cerebellum in pathophysiology of dystonia.  

A 60-year-old woman harbouring a tumour in the cerebellum.  

Results: The highest levels of this splice form were found in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON), pontine nuclei, medulla oblongata, gray matter of the spinal cord, the hippocampus, glomeruli of the cerebellum, the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), and the tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN).  

Compared with baseline activity, slow waves are associated with significant activity in the parahippocampal gyrus, cerebellum, and brainstem, whereas delta waves are related to frontal responses.  

A popular theory is that the cerebellum functions as a timer for clocking motor events (e.g. Yet, this finding could potentially be explained by an alternate theory in which the cerebellum acts as an internal model of limb mechanics. One interpretation of these combined results is that the cerebellum is indeed functioning as an internal model and is needed to make appropriate predictions for movement initiation and termination..  

Acutely, Prnp-/- spinal cord, cerebellum, and forebrain exhibited higher levels of leukocytic infiltrates and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, as well as increased spinal cord myelin basic protein and axonal loss. During the chronic phase, a remarkable persistence of leukocytic infiltrates was present in the forebrain and cerebellum, accompanied by an increase in interferon-gamma and interleukin-17 transcripts.  

Cerebellin (CER), originally isolated from rat cerebellum, is a hexadecapeptide derived from the larger precursor called precerebellin 1 (Cbln1). Initially CER was thought to be a cerebellum specific peptide, however subsequent studies revealed its presence in other brain regions as well as in extraneuronal tissues.  

OBJECTIVE: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) occurs rarely in the cerebellum.  

The CPC lies in the cerebellopontine angle between the brainstem, cerebellum and petrous bone.  

GLU release was observed to increase during both paired and unpaired training, suggesting that learning does not occur prior to the information arriving in the cerebellum.  

In patients, variations in the non-linear transition threshold were inversely correlated to the MTR values inside the right dorsolateral prefrontal WM, the right occipito-frontal fasciculus and in the left cerebellum.  

Also spared was the cerebellum.  

Patients without the at risk allele showed greater activations (P < 0.05; corrected) in the left hippocampus, precuneus and cerebellum, as well as the right anterior cingulate.  

The hypothesis of cerebellar learning proposes that complex spikes in Purkinje cells engage mechanisms of plasticity in the cerebellar cortex; in turn, changes in the cerebellum depress the simple-spike response of Purkinje cells to a given stimulus and cause the adaptive modification of a motor behavior.  

Progressive brain atrophy in HIV/AIDS is associated with impaired psychomotor performance, perhaps partly reflecting cerebellar degeneration; yet little is known about how HIV/AIDS affects the cerebellum.  

PURPOSE: This study demonstrates a simple background correction method, which improves the discrimination of benign from malignant lesions on FDG PET-CT imaging, using activity ratios compared with brain, basal ganglia, or cerebellum. Reference tissues included cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, lung, liver, and aortic blood pool. CONCLUSIONS: Ability to discriminate malignant from benign lesions was enhanced by using CARs derived from cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, or cerebellum.  

At P20, Fe concentrations in 4 brain regions (cortex, cerebellum, medulla/pons, and hypothalamus) generally were higher in all groups than in Cu-S pups.  

Pontocerebellar hypoplasias are heterogeneous disorders that share a reduction in the size of brainstem and cerebellum. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small cerebellum and brainstem, and a muscle biopsy revealed neurogenic changes.  

Double-labeling experiments revealed nNOS/ChAT-positive cells in (1) the diencephalon: the preoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei, the habenula, the dorsal thalamus, and the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus; (2) the mesencephalon: the optic tectum, the mesencephalic portion of the trigeminal nucleus, the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, and the Edinger-Westphal nucleus; and (3) the rhombencephalon: the secondary gustatory nucleus, the nucleus isthmi, the lateral lemniscus nucleus, the cerebellum, the reticular formation, different nuclei of the octaval column, the motor zone of the vagal lobe, and the trigeminal, facial, abducens, glosso-pharyngeal, vagal, and hypobranchial motor nuclei.  

The 3D-SSP score map showed decreased relative metabolism in the prefontal, cingulate and parietal regions in both hemispheres, and in the temporal region on the right, and increased relative metabolism in the occipital pole, vermis, cerebellum, dorsal-frontal, central convexity areas and basal ganglia in both hemispheres in patients compared with controls. Correlation coefficients of the anterior cingulate-primary sensorimotor, posterior cingulate-primary sensorimotor and occipital-media frontal in both hemispheres, of the frontal-primary sensorimotor, occipital-parahippocampal, primary visual-medial frontal and parahippocampal-amygdala in the right, and the frontal-vermis, parietal-thalamus, temporal-vermis, occipital-putamen, primary visual-putamen, thalamus-vermis and thalamus-cerebellum in the left were significantly different in patients compared with controls.  

In the brain, PDE4D11 expression levels increased in the cerebellum, but decreased in the hippocampus with progressive age, highlighting a potential role for this isoform in the development of the brain.  

Preliminary (three months) lesioning of the contralateral nucleus interpositus of the cerebellum or the lateral vestibular nucleus of Deiters led to reorganization of vestibulothalamic projections with formation of ipsilateral projections to the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus from the nuclei of the vestibular complex, along with changes in the normal representation of the contralateral projections of the vestibular complex to this thalamic nucleus.  

Acetylcholinesterase activity, a marker of cholinergic function, was decreased by 15.6% in the cerebral cortex, 20.9% in cerebellum and 14.9% in brain stem of diabetic rats compared to control rats. There was an increase in lipid peroxidation in cerebral cortex (21.97%), cerebellum (20.4%) and brain stem (25.5%) of diabetic rats. However, glutathione peroxidase activity increased by 11.2%, 13.6% and 23.1% in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brain stem respectively, while the activity of glutathione-s-transferase decreased only in cerebral cortex (21.7%).  

Five bilateral regions of interest (ROIs), namely dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, inferior parietal cortex (INFP), thalamus and cerebellum, were correlated with normalized cerebral metabolism in the rest of the brain while covarying out Hamilton Depression Rating Scale Scores. In common, bipolar and unipolar patients lacked the normal inverse relationships between the DLPFC and cerebellum, as well as relationships between the primary ROIs and other limbic regions (medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and temporal lobes) compared with controls.  

Our results showed that TMT acute exposure induced brain cell apoptosis in the telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum.  

On a brain regional level, parent radioligand ranged from 87.5 +/- 3.9% (57.2 +/- 14.2% SUV [ standard uptake values, %injected radioactivity per mL multiplied with animal weight (in g)]; cerebellum) to 92.9 +/- 1.8% (36.1 +/- 4.7% SUV; striatum), with differential distribution of the radiometabolite in the cerebellum (6.7 +/- 0.3% SUV) and the striatum (2.5 +/- 0.3% SUV). 125%SUV) with the following rank order of regional brain radioactivity: cerebellum x thalamus > cortical regions > striatum.  

Neuronal apoptosis was observed in mice infected with both serotypes and was prominent in the cerebellum.  

A general pattern emerged of cortical regions covarying inversely with subcortical structures, particularly the frontal cortex with cerebellum, amygdala and thalamus.  

The molecular characteristics of atypical scrapie have been well defined, but detailed descriptions of the neuropathological phenotype are rare since the majority of cases have been detected through active surveillance programmes where only brainstem and cerebellum are collected for statutory diagnosis. Immunolabelling for PrP(Sc) is mild and restricted at the obex and more intense and widespread rostrally, particularly in the cerebellum, substantia nigra, thalamus and basal nuclei. It also reinforces the current recommendation to collect cerebellum in addition to brainstem to enable confident confirmation of this distinct disease phenotype within surveillance programmes..  

In two experiments (whole brain and cerebellum) using the same paradigm, differences in brain activations induced by reflexive and self-paced voluntary saccades were assessed. No significant difference in activation was found in the cerebellum.  

We report that the pig autoradiographic 5-HT(4) receptor distribution resembles the human 5-HT(4) receptor distribution with the highest binding in the striatum and no detectable binding in the cerebellum.  

This study aims to establish the relationship between structural changes in the cerebellum and executive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometry. A widely used executive battery and the voxel-based morphometry approach were used to investigate possible structural cerebellum changes on magnetic resonance imaging. Mental flexibility dysfunctions also correlated with reductions in white matter volume in bilateral cerebellum.  

We report the unexpected finding of complete absence of the cerebellum due to maceration at autopsy, even though it was clearly demonstrated (but abnormal) on the antenatal ultrasound scan and MRI, as well as on post-mortem MRI.  

We used measures of V(T)/f(P) and estimates of nondisplaceable volume of distribution and found 25%-200% higher values in smokers than in nonsmokers for the volume of distribution for the specific binding compartment in the frontal cortex, midbrain, putamen, pons, cerebellum, and corpus callosum.  

In our present study, we detected CD226 mRNA and protein in the mouse hippocampus and cerebellum by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. These results showed the diverse localization of CD226 in the mouse hippocampus and cerebellum for the first time and suggested its potential role in the CNS..  

Random effects group regression analysis of 35 EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions against occipital alpha magnitude in a relaxed state detected bilateral widespread activation of dorsal thalamus and portions of the anterior cingulate and cerebellum.  

The presence and characteristics of neurological signs in untreated vis-à-vis treated psychosis indicate a vulnerability marker for schizophrenia and implicate disruption to neuronal circuits linking the basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum.  

l-NNA treatment produced decreases in NO levels in the frontal cortex, striatum, brainstem and cerebellum, while in the occipital cortex changes were observed at PD120.  

The results revealed that different temporal patterns of auditory stimuli were represented in different temporal features of BOLD responses in the bilateral auditory cortex, whereas different temporal patterns of tapping were reflected in contralateral primary motor cortex and the ipsilateral anterior cerebellum. In bilateral premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, visual cortex, and posterior cerebellum, task-related BOLD responses were exhibited, but their responses did not reflect the temporal patterns of the movement and/or stimuli.  

For the experimental data, the proposed method shows its high sensitivity by detecting multiple activation regions, namely visual cortex, cuneus, precuneus, thalamus, and cerebellum. From these regions, precuneus and cerebellum are not detected by majority of the previously published methods..  

RESULTS: In subjects who developed psychosis there were longitudinal volume reductions in the orbitofrontal, superior frontal, inferior temporal, medial and superior parietal cortex, and in the cerebellum.  

Joubert syndrome (JBTS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellum and brainstem malformations. Generally, the AHI1/Ahi1/ahi1 orthologs had a conserved distribution pattern in human, mouse, and zebrafish, but mouse Ahi1 was not present in the developing and mature cerebellum.  

Interestingly, the activation of caspase-3 was observed in a significant number of neurons of the cerebellum and neocortex 9 hours following cardiac arrest.  

Magnetic resonance imaging showed widespread high signal changes within the brainstem bilaterally, the cerebellum, inferior cerebellar peduncle, and the frontal lobe on the right.  

RECENT FINDINGS: In regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies with isoflurane and sevoflurane, there is a consistent pattern of rise in rCBF in the anterior cingulate cortex and insula while the thalamus, lingual cortex and cerebellum show a decrease in rCBF, in a dose range of 0.2-1 minimum alveolar concentration.  

The amounts of CML increased with age in cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and midbrain, but were unchanged in the brainstem and cerebellum.  

Levels of BDNF and NGF were measured from extracts of hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum at the end of the third and fifth months.  

To clarify whether the cerebellum participates in modulation of food intake through these two neurotransmitters, we investigated the distribution and expression levels of 5-HT and NPY in cerebellum of the duck. Our results showed that 5-HT and NPY were distributed only at the Purkinje cell layer of the duck cerebellum.  

The most significant changes were found in the cerebellum, where there were decreased numbers of Purkinje cells, increased numbers of glial cells, scattered vacuoles and occasional swollen axons.  

On the contrary, Sufu as well as Gli1 and Gli2 expression was upregulated in the medulloblastomas compared to adult cerebellum in Ptch1(+/-) and Sufu(+/-)Ptch1(+/-) mice.  

Temporo-parietal coherence in the alpha band was significantly correlated with diffusivity in predominantly posterior white matter tracts including posterior corpus callosum, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe white matter, thalamus, midbrain, pons, and cerebellum, both in MCI subjects and controls (P < 0.05). In MCI subjects, frontal coherence in the alpha band was significantly correlated with a predominately frontal pattern of diffusivity including fiber tracts of the anterior corpus callosum, frontal lobe white matter, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum (P < 0.05).  

Although improving contralateral rigidity and akinesia, left GPe stimulation decreased rCBF in the left cerebellum and lateral premotor cortex at rest and significantly increased it in the left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) during movement.  

Compared with BMS patients, those with SPMS had a significant GM loss in the cerebellum.  

Despite well-established infection in cerebrum, cerebellum, choroid, vitreous humor (10(2)-10(3)CFU/mL), spinal cord, and meninges (10-10(2)CFU/g), only 8.1% UC CSF cultures were positive. Therapeutic response in CNS tissue was site-dependent with significant decreases of fungal burden in cerebrum and cerebellum starting at 8 mg/kg, meninges at 2 mg/kg, and vitreous humor at 4 mg/kg.  

Of particular interest was the degeneration of Purkinje cells (PC) within the cerebellum, beginning by 7 weeks of age in parasagittal bands and culminating with near complete degeneration of this cell type by 20 weeks.  

Here, we examine alterations in brain volume and growth factor expression in the cerebellum and striatum, motor regions that may contribute to the improved behavioral performance seen with choline supplementation.  

In a small sample of healthy volunteers the VAs appeared to contribute unequally, provide predominantly ipsilateral supply to the cerebellum, and undergo minimal mixing in the basilar artery..  

Several synaptic depression mechanisms have been described for the hippocampus, cerebellum and neocortex in vitro, but little is known about which, if any, are engaged during experience-dependent depression (EDD).  

Skew deviation is a vertical strabismus believed to be caused by imbalance of otolithic projections to ocular motor neurons (disynaptically via the medial longitudinal fasciculus in the brainstem, or polysynaptically via the cerebellum).  

In a previous study, it has been demonstrated that CCH decreases the abundance of NBCn1 and NBCn2 proteins in four regions of the mouse brain: cerebral cortex (CX), subcortex (SCX), cerebellum (CB), and hippocampus (HC).  

d-Ser was not detected in cerebellum (<172ng/g tissue)..  

This may reflect the relatively small sample sizes that were studied, clinical heterogeneity, or age-related brain differences.MethodHence, we measured head size (intracranial volume), and the bulk volume of ventricular and peripheral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), lobar brain, and cerebellum in 114 people with ASD and 60 controls aged between 18 and 58 years. CONCLUSIONS: Within ASD adults, the bulk volume of cerebellum is reduced irrespective of diagnostic subcategory.  

Transcriptome analysis showed an upregulation of the NR2A subunit of the NMDA type of glutamate receptors in TgDyrk1A cerebellum. These findings suggest that DYRK1A overexpression might contribute to the dysbalance in the excitatory transmission found in the cerebellum of DS individuals and DS mouse models..  

Heavy P2X(5) receptor immunostaining was observed in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb; cerebral cortex; globus pallidum, anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, amygdalohippocampal area of subcortical telencephalon; anterior nuclei, anteroventral nucleus, ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus; supraoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus; substantia nigra of midbrain; pontine nuclei, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, motor trigeminal nucleus, ambiguous nucleus, inferior olive, hypoglossal nucleus, dorsal motor vagus nucleus, area postrema of hindbrain; Purkinje cells of cerebellum; and spinal cord.  

The rostral tumor portions in the peritectal region extruding up to the thalami were exposed and resected via an infratentorial supracerebellar route to preserve the venous drainage of the cerebellum.  

Brain MRI revealed an unhomogeneously enhanced, large-sized tumor (56 x 52 x 60 mm) mainly located in the pineal region expanding from the midbrain to superior portion of the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle.  

Although many LC neurons eventually reached the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum in DCC(-/-) embryos at late embryonic stages, a substantial number of LC neurons were abnormally distributed in the rostral pons and cerebellum.  

A cranial form of Paget's disease was found and a secondary basilar impression with compression of the cerebellum and brain stem was proven.  

Excitatory amino acid transporter 4 (EAAT4), a member of the high-affinity Na+/K+-dependent glutamate transporter family, is highly enriched in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, although it is not restricted to these cells. Despite moderate expression levels compared with the cerebellum, EAAT4 protein was omnipresent throughout the fore- and midbrain. The expression of EAAT4 was confirmed at the mRNA level in some important fore- and midbrain structures by in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and estimated to range from 6.7 to 1.6% of the amount in the cerebellum as measured by real-time PCR..  

RESULTS: Statistical parametric mapping showed that viewing erotic film excerpts that induced sexual arousal was associated, in both groups, with activation of the middle prefrontal gyrus, bilateral temporal lobe and postcentral gyrus, thalamus, insula, vermis, left precuneus, occipital cortex, parietal cortex, and cerebellum.  

In addition, we found lysosomal activity in the cerebellum at the time of, and at sites where, climbing fibers are eliminated.  

Precise representation of the timing of sensory stimuli is essential for rapid motor coordination, a core function of the cerebellum.  

We found a quadratic relation between the mean-to-threshold ratio and the maximum-to-cerebellum activity ratio.  

Volumes of ventricular compartments, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, cerebellum, and regional cortical gray and white matter were dependent variables.  

In comparison to the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, and medial temporal lobes, the cerebellum has been absent from recent research on the neural substrates of categorization and identification, two prominent tasks in the learning and memory literature. To investigate the contribution of the cerebellum to these tasks, we tested patients with cerebellar pathology (seven with bilateral degeneration, six with unilateral lesions, and two with midline damage) on rule-based and information-integration categorization tasks and an identification task. Although the interpretation of these null results requires caution, these data contribute to the current debate on cerebellar contributions to cognition by providing boundary conditions on understanding the neural substrates of categorization and identification, and help define the functional domain of the cerebellum in learning and memory..  

The opposite mechanism, long-term depression (LTD), a reduction of synaptic transmission, was first discovered in the cerebellum.  

However, one month after onset, brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed ischemic changes (infarction) in the left cerebellum.  

Besides limb shaking, that seems to reflect a transient diffuse ischemia of the frontosubcortical motor pathway, lesions are described at all levels of the frontosubcortical motor circuit including the sensorimotor frontoparietal cortex, the striatum, the pallidum, the thalamic nuclei, the subthalamic nucleus, the substantia nigra, the cerebellum, the brainstem and their interconnecting pathways, as ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes.  

Investigation at the molecular level revealed impaired juxtaparanodal clustering of Caspr2 and Kv1.1/1.2 in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, cerebellum and olfactory bulb, with diffusion into the internode. Caspr2 and Kv1.1 levels were reduced in the cerebellum and olfactory bulb.  

Drug concentrations in the plasma and six different regions of the brain tissues, i.e., olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, anterior, middle, and posterior segments of cerebrum and cerebellum were analyzed by LC/MS method after solid phase extraction.  

Magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive vasogenic edema in the cerebellum bilaterally.  

Bifurcation analysis reveals that this network asymmetry enables flexible control by the cerebellum of brainstem network dynamics, but small changes in connection pattern or strength lead to behavior that is unstable, oscillatory, or both. The model produces the full range of waveform types associated with the hereditary eye movement disorder know as congenital nystagmus, and is consistent with findings linking the disorder with abnormal connectivity or limited plasticity in the cerebellum..  

Subsequently, total VC and carnitine levels were measured in the cerebrum, cerebellum, liver, kidney, soleus muscle, extensor digitorum longus muscle, heart, plasma and serum.  

Exercise-mediated improvements in walking velocity correlated with increased activation in cerebellum and midbrain. CONCLUSIONS: T-EX improves walking, fitness and recruits cerebellum-midbrain circuits, likely reflecting neural network plasticity.  

This is an extremely rare manifestation of VZV vasculopathy associated with widespread CNS damage, and what is more, the spinal lesions were different from those of the cerebrum, brainstem and cerebellum, where the former were predominantly demyelinative changes and the latter were ischemic.  

RESULTS: The main centers affected in the NERD-H patients included the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), primary somatosensory cortex (S1), right prefrontal cortex (PFC), right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insular cortex, amygdala, striatum, motor cortex and its supplementary area, and cerebellum cortices, which form part of the matrix controlling emotional, autonomic modulatory responses to pain.  

CASR expression was detected in the temporal lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, cerebellum, and hippocampus.  

Cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNPs), proposed cells-of-origin for specific classes of medulloblastomas, require SHH and IGF signaling for proliferation and survival during development of the cerebellum. We report that SHH-treated CGNPs showed increased levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein, which was also present in the germinal layer of the developing mouse cerebellum and in mouse SHH-induced medulloblastomas.  

However, their role and regulation in other brain areas, including the cerebellum, is largely unexplored. In the present study we examined whether Ob-R levels in the rat cerebellum are influenced by a high-fat diet and if these changes are sexually divergent during adolescence. In the cerebellum of all fat-fed male groups, Ob-R levels were reduced compared with their chow-fed counterparts (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our data show for the first time that Ob-R levels in the rat cerebellum are subject to diet-induced alterations and that these changes are sexually dimorphic..  

CONCLUSION: We found that the cerebellum contributes in several language parameters.  

They undergo proliferation for an extensive period well into postnatal stages of development to form the major cell type of the cerebellum, the most populous structure within the mammalian brain.  

on E12.5, and assessed the linear density of PCs in the cerebellum of adult or postnatal day 11 (P11) offspring. Adult offspring of influenza- or poly(I:C)-exposed mice display a localized deficit in PCs in lobule VII of the cerebellum, as do P11 offspring.  

In this report, we describe morphological abnormalities of axons of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of Ts65Dn mice, by using anti-calbindin immunocytochemistry.  

However, the MDA levels of the cerebellum were significantly lower than that of the frontal and occipital cortex of the aged animals.  

Measurements of the size, volumes, and growth rates of many regions of the brain, such as the corpus callosum, ventricular system, cortex, deep grey matter, and cerebellum, are all also altered following preterm birth, but there is insufficient evidence to use this data in the clinical setting.  

In vivo treatment with neuronostatin induced c-fos expression in gastrointestinal tissues, anterior pituitary, cerebellum, and hippocampus.  

However, various lines of evidence are at odds with the idea that the cerebellum plays a central role in the associative processes underlying sequence learning. Moreover, neuroimaging studies have failed to identify learning-related changes within the cerebellum. This dissociation provides an important constraint on the functional domain of the cerebellum in motor learning..  

Significant increases in the phosphorylation of ERK, in the expression of the catalytic (p110) and the regulatory (p85) subunits of PI3K and in the phosphorylation of Akt were observed in the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the cerebellum 24 hr after progesterone administration.  

In view of recent evidence for important implications of the cerebellum in neurodevelopmental psychiatric diseases, we have now addressed possible degenerative changes in the cerebellar cortex of neonatal Wistar rats of both genders. The present results provide new insights regarding the psychopathological implications of the cerebellum, the role of the endocannabinoid system in neural development, and the possible neurodevelopmental basis of gender differences in schizophrenia..  

The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) receptor was purified from bovine cerebellum and reconstituted in liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (1:1) successfully.  

Though serum from this patient was negative for well-characterized antibodies, further testing revealed the presence of proteins binding to the hippocampal region of the midbrain and the cerebellum, and to components of the extracellular matrix of the tumor which may suggest partially characterized or as yet uncharacterized antibodies directed against renal cell tumor tissue and the nervous system.  

The evidence for paradoxical transfer is reviewed, as well as experiments that show that the cerebellum is the likely route for the spared communications between the two sides of the brain..  

We analyzed the gene expression of regionally defined GABAergic neurons from the cortex, olfactory bulb, striatum, and cerebellum of glutamate decarboxylase 67-green fluorescence protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mice.  

In tissues, the three hTAPs are detectable ubiquitously at low level; pronounced and localized expression is found for hTAP2 and hTAP3 in the perinuclear region in cerebellum, lung, liver and adrenal gland.  

Unexpectedly, in transgenic fish produced by both integration of linearized plasmid or Tol2-mediated transgenesis, sCMV promoter expression was generally observed in a small population of cells in telencephalon and spinal cord between days 2 and 7, and was thereafter confined to discrete regions of CNS that included the olfactory bulb, retina, cerebellum, spinal cord, and lateral line.  

However, little is known about downstream genes of Math1 and their functions in the cerebellum. To investigate them, we have here established an electroporation-based in vivo gene transfer method in the developing mouse cerebellum.  

However, ASPM's evolution is not correlated with major changes in relative whole-brain or cerebellum sizes.  

We investigated the potential of SVZ cells to alter their fate by transplanting them into a heterotypic neurogenic and gliogenic environment-the cerebellum. Forebrain progenitors populated the cerebellum and differentiated into oligodendrocytes, cerebellar-specific Bergmann glia and velate astrocytes, and neurons.  

We present a systems-oriented histopathologic analysis of the ocular motor control circuits in the cerebellum and brainstem from a patient with a hereditary form of olivopontine cerebellar atrophy of the Wadia type, which has a characteristic ocular motor presentation of slow saccades but relative preservation of smooth pursuit and gaze-holding.  


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