Nucleus Habenularis

Thus, only the rho1-subunit gene is expressed in the deep cerebellar nuclei, the dorsal thalamus, the ectostriatum and the tractus vestibulomesencephalicus, while only the rho2-subunit gene is transcribed in the Nucleus habenularis lateralis and the nucleus isthmo-opticus.  

Habenular complex in hedgehog divides into Nucleus habenularis medialis (hm) and lateralis (hl).  

A lower density of NPY binding sites was found in the different subdivisions of the striatum, the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis, the paleostriatum, the archistriatum intermedium pars ventralis, the nucleus geniculatus lateralis, the nucleus taeniae, the locus ceruleus, the nucleus rotondus, the Nucleus habenularis medialis, the nucleus dorsomedialis anterior (rostralis) thalami, the pituitary and the area of the hypothalamus with its nuclei such as the nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis and the nucleus preopticus medialis.  

High densities of BBS/GRP binding sites were also localized in the dorsal cerebellum, and Nucleus habenularis.  

Finally, BBS/GRP-like IR material was detected in the Nucleus habenularis, the nucleus rotundus, several thalamic nuclei, and the optic tectum of the dorso-posterior diencephalon.  

Few glucagon-reactive foci were detected in the diencephalon (the nucleus dorsomedialis of hypothalamus, the two circumventricular organs, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median eminence and the Nucleus habenularis medialis).  

NPY-immunoreactive, but not FMRF-immunoreactive, neurons were found in the stratum periventriculare of the optic tectum, and at the ventral border of the Nucleus habenularis (adjacent to the nucleus dorsolateralis thalami).  

High numbers of beta 2-LI somata were found only in the nucleus spiriformis lateralis, whereas neuropil staining for beta 2-LI was intense in the nucleus geniculatus lateralis ventralis, nucleus suprachiasmaticus, nucleus lateralis anterior, Nucleus habenularis lateralis, area pretectalis, griseum tecti, nucleus lentiformis mesencephalis, nucleus externus, and nucleus interpeduncularis, and in the stratum griseum centrale, stratum griseum et fibrosum superficiale, and stratum opticum of the tectum.  

The highest densities of specific ANF-binding were detected in the Nucleus habenularis, thalamic regions, hypophyseal pars nervosa and nucleus interpeduncularis. The highest levels of specific A II binding sites were observed in the nucleus praeopticus, Nucleus habenularis, hypophyseal pars nervosa and pars distalis, whereas the amygdala contained moderate A II binding. The co-localization of dense binding sites for both peptides in the Nucleus habenularis, hypophyseal pars nervosa and pars distalis supports the view that ANF and A II have opposite regulatory functions in these regions..  

Some fibers course rostrally from the Nucleus habenularis lateralis in the stria medullaris and could be followed to the dorsal septum..  

Very dense innervation was observed in the medial part of the telencephalon, ventrolateral part of the hypothalamus, Nucleus habenularis lateralis, and ventromedial part of the tegmentum. The main ascending fibers were observed in the lateral part of the hypothalamus, sending dense fiber bundles to the cortices dorsomedialis and medialis and Nucleus habenularis lateralis.  

vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum.  

The analysis of the brain structures showed a 22% reduction of optical density in the Nucleus habenularis lateralis, a 25% increase in the caudal part of the nucleus accumbens, and a 13% increase in the frontal cortex in rats treated with razobazam, but no change in the amygdala.  

In the Nucleus habenularis, the nucleus recessus lobus lateralis, the nucleus preglomerulosus pars medialis, and the tectum mesencephali isotocin fibers prevailed.  

Furthermore, a somatostatin-immunoreactive fiber projection is found in the ventral part of the medial accessory olivary nucleus, in nuclei of the limbic system (Nucleus habenularis medialis, nucleic supramamillaris and mamillaris lateralis) and in the formatio reticularis (nucleus Darkschewitsch, nuclei tegmenti lateralis and centralis, nucleus parabrachialis lateralis, as well as individual perikarya of the reticular formation).  

Moderately stained AChE neurons are also found in pars ventralis of nucleus geniculatus lateralis and in pars lateralis of Nucleus habenularis.  

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